Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: médhu   'mead, honey'

Semantic Field(s): Mead, Honey


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: mid n mead LRC
Welsh: meddyglyn n drink of mead W7/WE
Old English: medo, medu, meodn n.masc mead ASD/W7
Middle English: amatiste n amethyst W7
mede n mead W7
English: amethyst n crystallized quartz in clear blue/violet/purple color AHD/W7
mead n drink made from fermented honey AHD/W7
Meduseld prop.n Mark palace in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
methylene n bivalent hydrocarbon radical AHD
West Germanic  
Old High German: metu, meto, mito n.masc mead ASD/W7
German: Meth n mead ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mjǫðr n.masc mead LRC
Icelandic: mjödr n.masc mead ASD
Latin: amethystus n.fem amethyst W7
Old French: amatiste n.fem amethyst W7
Lithuanian: medùs n honey LRC
Russian: med n honey LRC
medved n bear, lit. honey-eater LRC
Homeric Greek: μέθῠ n.neut mead, wine LRC
Greek: amethystos n.fem remedy for drunkenness W7
methuskein vb to intoxicate AHD
methyw vb to be drunk W7
Luwian: maddu- n mead LRC
Avestan: madu- n mead, wine LRC
Sanskrit: mádhu n honey LRC
Tocharian B: mit n honey LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
WE=H. Meurig Evans and W.O. Thomas: Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary (1969)

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