Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: meig̑h-   'to micturate, urinate'

Semantic Field(s): to Urinate; Urine


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mīgan vb.str to urinate W7/ASD
mistel n mistletoe; basil W7
misteltān n mistletoe, lit. mistletoe twig W7
Middle English: misellen vb to mizzle W7
mist n mist W7
mistilto n basil; mistletoe W7
English: micturate vb.intrans to urinate AHD/W7
mist n water as small droplets floating/falling in air AHD/W7
mistletoe n European semiparasitic green shrub AHD/W7
mizzle vb.intrans to drizzle, rain in fine drops AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: mist n mist, fog W7
Dutch: mist n mist TLL
Flemish: mizzelen vb to mizzle W7
Old Saxon: mistil n mistletoe W7
Middle Low German: mīgen vb to urinate ASD
Old High German: mistil n.masc mistletoe; basil ASD
German: Mistel n.fem mistletoe LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: mistil-teinn n mistletoe ASD
mīga vb to urinate ASD
Danish: mistelten n mistletoe ASD
Latin: micturio, micturīre vb to micturate W7
mingō, mingere, mīnxī, mictus vb to urinate W7
Greek: omichlē n.fem vapor W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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