Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mei-t(h)-   'to commute, (ex)change'

Semantic Field(s): to Change, to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemād adj mad, silly W7
gemǣdan vb.wk to madden ASD/W7
māðm, mādm, māð(ð)um n.masc gift, jewel, treasure ASD
māðum-hūs n.neut treasury, lit. treasure-house ASD
mis(s)-, misse-, mist- pfx mis- ASD/W7
missan vb to miss W7
Middle English: amis, amys adv amiss AHD/MEV
madd, medd adj mad W7
mis-, mes- pfx mis- W7
missen vb to miss W7
mistaken vb to mistake W7
English: amiss adj/adv wrong(ly), improper(ly); astray W7
commute vb to exchange, give in exchange AHD/W7
mad adj insane, mentally disordered AHD/W7
madden vb to make/drive mad LRC
mathom n hobbit gift in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Mathom-house prop.n weapon museum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
mis- pfx bad, wrong; badly, wrongly AHD/W7
mishap n.arch misfortune, bad luck AHD/W7
miss vb to fail to reach/touch/contact AHD/W7
mistake, mistook, mistaken vb.str to choose wrongly AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mis- pfx mis- ASD
missa vb to miss, be without ASD
Old Saxon: mēðmōs gifts, precious things ASD
mis- pfx mis- ASD
Old High German: gimeit adj mad, crazy, foolish W7
missa-, missi- pfx mis- ASD
missan vb to miss W7
Middle High German: misse- pfx mis- ASD
German: mis(s)- pfx mis- ASD
missen vb to miss LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mis- pfx mis- W7
missa, missat vb to miss, lose, be without LRC
mistaka vb to mistake W7
Icelandic: meiðmar gifts ASD
mis- pfx mis- ASD
missa vb to miss, lack, lose ASD
Danish: mis- pfx mis- ASD
Swedish: mis- pfx mis- ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: inmáidjan vb.wk.I to transfigure LRC
maiþm n gift, jewel, treasure LRC
missō adv reciprocally, one then another, one to another LRC
Latin: commūto, commūtāre vb to commute W7
mūto, mūtāre vb to change W7
Old French: mis-, mes- pfx not, mis- W7
Middle French: mes- pfx not, mis- W7
Sanskrit: methati vb to hurt W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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