Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. mel-   'big, strong'

Semantic Field(s): Big, Large, Great, Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: multi- pfx multi- W7
multitude n multitude W7
English: ameliorate vb to improve, make/grow better AHD/W7
meliorate vb to improve, make/become better AHD/W7
meliorism n belief that society tends to improve itself AHD
molto adv much, very AHD/W7
multi- pfx many, multiple AHD/W7
multipara n female that has borne offspring 2+ times CDC
multiple adj more than one AHD/W7
multiplex adj re: multiple parts/elements AHD
multiply vb to increase in number W7
multitude n state of being many/numerous AHD/W7
multivoltine adj producing several broods per season AHD
Latin: melior adj.comp better W7
melius adv better LRC
multi- pfx mutliple W7
multitudo, multitudinis n.fem multitude LRC
multum adv greatly LRC
multus, multa, multum adj much, many LRC
Late Latin: meliorō, meliorāre, meliorāvī, meliorātus vb to make better W7
Middle French: multi- pfx many W7
multitude n.fem multitude W7
Italian: molto adj much, many W7
Greek: μάλα adv very LRC
μᾶλλον adv more and more LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at