Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. mel-, melə-   'dark color (black, dirty, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): Dark in Color, Black, Dirty, Soiled


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: molet n mullet W7
English: maulstick n stick used by painters to rest hand while working AHD/W7
melena n digestive tract hemorrhage resulting in black tarry stool/vomit AHD
mule n slipper without quarter/counter AHD/W7
mullet n valuable food fish AHD/W7
psilomelane n hydrous black manganese oxide AHD
surmullet n mullet AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: maalstok n maulstick W7
malen vb to paint W7
German: malen vb to paint LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: mēljan vb.wk.I to enroll, register LRC
Latin: mulleus n.masc shoe worn by magistrates W7
mullus n.masc red mullet W7
Middle French: mule n.fem little shoe W7
mulet n.masc donkey W7
French: surmulet n.masc surmullet W7
Greek: μέλαν adj black LRC
myllos n.masc red mullet W7
Sanskrit: malina adj dirty, black W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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