Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mē̆lg̑-, or meləg̑-?   'to milk, pluck, wipe off'

Semantic Field(s): to Milk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bō-milge n cow's milk GED
mlicht n milk GED
mligim vb to milk GED
Middle Irish: blicht n milk LRC
bligim vb to milk LRC
Welsh: blith n milk LRC
Old English: me(o)lcan vb.str to milk GED/W7
meol(u)c n.fem milk ASD/W7
milc, mioluc n.fem milk GED
-milce sfx milch W7
þri-milce n.masc May, lit. three-milkings (month) ASD
Middle English: milche adj milch W7
milk n milk W7
English: emulsion n liquid dispersed in immiscible liquid AHD/W7
milch adj milk-giving AHD/W7
milchig adj from milk/dairy products AHD
milk n fluid secreted by mammary gland of female mammal AHD/W7
milk vb to draw/yield milk from breast/udder W7
Thrimidge, Thrimi(l)ch prop.n Shire calendar's May in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: melka vb.str to milk GED
melok n.fem milk GED
Old Saxon: miluk n.fem milk GED
Old High German: melchan vb.str to milk GED
miluh n.str.fem milk GED
Middle High German: milkh n milk AHD
German: melken vb to milk LRC
Milch n.fem milk LRC
Yiddish: milkh n milk AHD
milkhik adj milchig AHD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: mjaltir whey GED
mjaltr adj milch LRC
mjǫlk n.fem milk GED
molka vb.wk to milk GED
Icelandic: mjólkr n milk ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *miluks n.fem milk GED
Latin: ēmulgeō, ēmulgēre, ēmūlsī, ēmūlsus vb to milk out W7
melca n.fem milk GED
mulgeo, mulgēre vb to milk W7
New Latin: emulsio n.fem a milking out W7
Lithuanian: mal̃kas n gulp GED
mélžti vb to milk GED
mìlžti vb to milk LRC
Old Polish: młost n milk can GED
Polish: mleko n milk GED
Serbo-Croatian: mlâz n jet of milk LRC
Old Church Slavonic: *melko n milk GED
mlĕsti vb to milk GED
Russian: moloko n milk GED
molost n milk-time GED
Albanian: mjel vb to milk GED
Homeric Greek: ἀμέλγω vb to milk LRC
Greek: ἀμέλγω vb to draw, pull GED
μέλκα n herbed/spiced sour milk GED
Sanskrit: māršṭi vb to wipe, rub off LRC
Tocharian: malk- vb to milk GED
Tocharian B: malkwer n milk GED
Tocharian A: malke n milk GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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