Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: meli-t, genitive mel-nés   'honey'

Semantic Field(s): Honey


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: mil n honey LRC
milis adj sweet LRC
Old English: meledēaw n mildew W7
Middle English: mellilot n melilot W7
mildew n mildew W7
ydromel n hydromel W7
English: hydromel n honey diluted in water (then fermented to become mead) AHD/W7
marmalade n clear jellylike fruit preserve AHD
melilot n sweet clover AHD/W7
melliferous adj yielding/producing honey AHD/W7
mildew n whitish fungi growing on organic matter AHD/W7
molasses n thick brown viscid syrup made from sugar AHD/W7
mousse n light spongy food containing cream/gelatin AHD/W7
oenomel n ancient Greek beverage: wine and honey AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: militou n honeydew W7
milska n sweet mixed drink LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: milith n honey LRC
Latin: hydromeli n.neut hydromel W7
mel, mellis n.neut honey W7
melimēlum n.neut must-apple, honey-apple AHD/ELD
mellifer adj that makes/brings honey W7
Late Latin: mellaceum n.neut grape juice W7
mulsa n.fem hydromel W7
oenomeli n.neut hydromel W7
Portuguese: marmelada n marmalade AHD
melaço n.masc molasses W7
Middle French: melilot n.masc melilot (a flower) W7
ydromel n.masc hydromel W7
French: marmelade n marmalade AHD
mousse n.fem mousse, foam W7
Greek: meli n.neut honey W7
melilōtos n.neut melilot W7
oinomeli n.neut oenomel, lit. wine and honey W7
hydromeli n.neut hydromel, lit. water and honey W7
Luwian: mallit- n honey LRC
Hittite: milit- n honey LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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