Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mendh-   'to direct attention to; vivacious'

Semantic Field(s): to Show


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: monstre n monster W7
mustren vb to show, muster W7
English: chrestomathy n passages selected to aid language learning AHD/W7
demonstrate vb to show clearly AHD/W7
mathematical adj re: mathematics (science of numbers) AHD/W7
mathematics n science of numbers AHD/W7
monster n prodigy AHD/W7
muster vb to enlist AHD/W7
polymath n someone with encyclopedic learning AHD/W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: mundon vb.wk to observe, pay attention to GED/W7
Latin: dēmonstrō, dēmonstrāre, dēmonstrāvī, dēmonstrātus vb to show, point at W7
mathematicus adj mathematical W7
monstro, monstrāre vb to show W7
monstrum n.neut monster, evil omen W7
New Latin: chrestomathia n.fem learning W7
Old French: monstrer vb to show W7
Middle French: monstre n.masc monster W7
Greek: μάθημα, μάθηματος n.neut lesson; science, knowledge, mathematics LS
μᾰθημᾰτικος adj mathematical; disposed to learn LS
μᾰθητής n.masc pupil, student, disciple LS
μανθάνω vb to learn, know, understand LS
polymathēs adj very learned W7
chrēstomatheia n.fem learning W7
Sanskrit: medhā n intelligence W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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