Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: men(ə)k-   'to knead'

Semantic Field(s): to Knead


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: amongst prep among W7
gemong n.neut crowd ASD/W7
men(c)gan, mængan vb.wk to mix, mingle ASD/W7
Middle English: amang, emang adv meanwhile, at times MEV
among(es) prep among W7
mengen vb to mix W7
menglen vb to mingle W7
mong n mixture W7
ymong n mongrel, mixture W7
English: among prep surrounded by, in/through midst of AHD/W7
mingle vb to intermix, bring together/combine with something else AHD/W7
mongrel n result of mixing diverse breeds/strains AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mengia vb to mix, mingle ASD
Old Saxon: mengian vb to mix, mingle ASD
Middle High German: mengen vb to mix, mingle W7
German: Menge n.fem crowd, multitude, unspecified number/amount LRC
mengen vb to mix, mingle ASD
Greek: massw vb to knead W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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