Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mēnōt, genitive mēneses, from which mēnes-, mēns-, mēs-, mēn-   'month; moon'

Semantic Field(s): Month, Moon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blōt-mōnaþ n.masc November, lit. blood-month (of sacrifice) ASD
ēaster-mōnaþ n.masc April, lit. Easter-month ASD
hālig-mōnaþ n.masc September, lit. holy-month (of sacrifice) ASD
mōna n.masc moon ASD/W7
mōn(a)ð n.masc month ASD
Sol-mōnaþ prop.n.masc February, lit. mire-month ASD
Middle English: mone n moon W7
month n month W7
English: amenorrhea n abnormal absence/suppression of menstrual discharge AHD/W7
bimestrial adj bimonthly, recurring/continuing in/for 2 months AHD/W7
Blotmath, Blodmath, Blommath prop.n Shire calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
catamenia n menses AHD/W7
dysmenorrhea n painful/difficult/laborious menstruation AHD/CDC
emmenagogue n agent promoting menstrual discharge AHD/W7
Halimath prop.n Shire calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Harvestmath prop.n Bree calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
menarche n first menstrual period AHD
meniscus n crescent, crescent-shaped body AHD/W7
menopause n natural cessation of menstruation AHD/W7
menses n menstrual flow AHD/W7
menstrual adj re: menstruation AHD
menstruate vb.intrans to discharge blood/tissue/secretion debris from uterus AHD/W7
menstruation n (monthly) discharge of uterine blood/tissue/secretions W7
mensural adj re: polyphonic music where notes have precise time value AHD/W7
month n measure of time originally defined by period of moon's revolution AHD/W7
moon n earth's only natural satellite AHD/W7
moonshine n moonlight W7
semester n six months AHD/W7
So(l)math prop.n Shire calendar's February in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
trimester n (about) three months AHD/W7
Wedmath prop.n Shire calendar's August in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Yulemath prop.n Bree calendar's December in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mōna n.masc moon ASD
mōnath n month ASD
Dutch: maan n.fem moon ASD
Old Saxon: māno n.masc moon ASD
Old Low German: mānuth n month ASD
Old High German: māno n.masc moon ASD/W7
mānōd n month W7
Middle High German: mān(d)e, mānt n.masc/fem moon ASD
German: Monat n.masc month ASD
Mond n.masc moon ASD
Semester n.neut six months W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: máni n.masc moon LRC
Icelandic: máni n.masc moon ASD
mánuðr n month ASD
Danish: maane n moon LRC
maaned n month ASD
Swedish: monad n month ASD
måne n moon LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: mēna n.masc moon ASD
mēnoþs n month ASD
Crimean Gothic: mine n moon CGo
Latin: bimestris adj bimestrial W7
mensis n.masc month W7
menstrua mentruations W7
menstruus adj monthly W7
mensura n.fem measure W7
semestris adj half-yearly W7
trimestris adj of three months W7
Late Latin: menstruor, menstruāri, mestruātus vb.dep to menstruate W7
mensuralis adj re: measures W7
New Latin: amenorrhea n.fem absence of menstruation W7
catamenia n.fem catamenia W7
meniscus n.masc meniscus W7
French: ménopause n.fem menopause W7
trimestre n.masc trimester W7
Latvian: mēnesis n.masc month LRC
Old Church Slavonic: měsęcь n.masc moon, month LRC
Greek: emmēnos adj monthly W7
katamēnia n.fem catamenia W7
katamēnios adj monthly W7
μήν n.masc month LRC
μηνάς n.fem moon LS
μήνη n.fem moon LS
μηνίσκος n.masc meniscus LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at