Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. menth-   'to chew, eat'

Semantic Field(s): to Eat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mūð n.masc mouth LRC
mūða n.masc mouth of a river, estuary LRC
Middle English: blancmanger n blancmange W7
mange(ou)r n manger W7
manjewe n mange W7
mouth n mouth W7
English: blancmange n dessert made from milk and starchy/gelatinous substances AHD/W7
mandible n jaw AHD/W7
mange n persistent contagious skin disease AHD/W7
manger n trough/box holding livestock feed/fodder AHD/W7
masseter n large muscle that closes lower jaw AHD/W7
masticate vb to chew, grind/crush (food) with teeth AHD/W7
mental adj genial, re: chin AHD/W7
mostaccioli n short pasta tubes with slanted ends AHD
m(o)ustache n hair grown/groomed on upper lip AHD
mouth n opening for food passing into animal's body AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: muth, mund n mouth ASD
Dutch: mond n mouth TLL
Old Saxon: mūð n mouth ASD
Old High German: mund n mouth W7
German: Mund n.masc mouth LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: munni n mouth (of cave, etc.) ASD
munnr, múðr n mouth ASD
Danish: mund n mouth TLL
Swedish: mun n mouth TLL
mustasch n moustache TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: munþs n mouth ASD
Latin: mando, mandere vb to chew W7
manduco, manducare vb to chew, devour W7
manducus n.masc glutton W7
mentum n.neut chin W7
Late Latin: mandibula n.fem mandible W7
mastico, masticāre, masticāvī, masticātus vb to masticate W7
Middle French: maingeure n.fem manger W7
mandibule n.fem mandible (of insect) W7
mangene n.fem mange, itching W7
mangier vb to eat W7
Doric: μυστάξ n upper lip AHD
Greek: masaomai vb to chew W7
masētēr adj one who chews W7
mastax n.fem mouth, jaws W7
mastichaw vb to masticate, make noise with teeth W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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