Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mer-   'to flicker, shimmer'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mi(e)rce, myrce n.neut mirk, murk ASD/IEW
morgen n.masc morrow, morning W7
Middle English: amorwe adv on the next day MEV
conformen vb to conform W7
deformen vb to deform W7
forme n form W7
informen vb to inform W7
mere adj mere W7
mirke n mirk W7
morwen, morn, morning n morn, morning W7
reformen vb to reform W7
transformen vb to transform W7
English: allelomorph n allele AHD/W7
amorphous adj shapeless, without form TLL
conform vb to bring into harmony/agreement AHD/W7
deform vb to spoil form of AHD/W7
filiform adj shaped like filament AHD/W7
-form adj.sfx resembling, in form/shape of AHD/W7
form n shape/structure (as distinguished from material) AHD/W7
formal adj re: essential structure/constitution AHD/W7
formant n band/component of speech sound AHD/W7
format n shape/size/general makeup AHD/W7
formula n set phrasings for use in ritual/ceremony AHD/W7
inform vb to impart material form to AHD/W7
mere adj absolute, undiminished AHD/W7
metamorphosis n change in physical form/structure/substance AHD/W7
mirk n murk W7
Mirkwood prop.n gloomy forest in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
mirky adj murky W7
morganatic adj re: marriage of social unequals where no titles/estates are shared AHD
morgen n Dutch/southern African land unit AHD/W7
morn n dawn AHD/W7
morning n dawn AHD/W7
-morph sfx form, shape, structure, appearance AHD
morpheme n meaningful linguistic unit AHD/W7
morph(o)- pfx form, shape, structure, appearance AHD
morphosis n manner in which organism changes form AHD
morrow n morning AHD/W7
murk n gloom, darkness AHD/W7
murky adj dark, gloomy LRC
platform n design, plan AHD/W7
reform vb to amend/improve (e.g. by change of form) AHD/W7
transform vb to change in structure/composition AHD/W7
uniform adj invariant, always having same form/manner/degree AHD/W7
Scots English: mirk n murk ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: morn n morn ASD
Dutch: morgen n morning W7
Old Saxon: mirki adj murky LRC
morgan n morning ASD
Old High German: morgan n.masc morning W7
German: Allelomorph n allelomorph AHD
Format n.neut format W7
Morgen n.masc morning W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: morginn n.masc morning LRC
myrkr adj murky LRC
Old Icelandic: myrkvi n.masc murk LRC
Myrk-viðr prop.n.masc east Europe forest, lit. Murk-wood LRC
Icelandic: mjörkvi n murk, thick fog ASD
morginn n morning ASD
myrkr n.neut murk ASD
Danish: morgen n morning ASD
mörke n murk ASD
Swedish: morgon n morning ASD
mörker n murk TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: maúrgins n.str.masc morning LRC
Latin: conformo, conformare vb to shape W7
deformo, deformare vb to deform W7
forma n.fem form, shape, beauty W7
-formis sfx shaped W7
formō, formāre, formāvī, formātus vb to form, shape W7
formula n.fem beauty, formula W7
informo, informare vb to form, fashion W7
merus adj pure, unmixed W7
metamorphosis n.fem metamorphosis W7
reformo, reformāre vb to form again W7
transformo, transformāre vb to change form W7
uniformis adj of one shape W7
Portuguese: forma n form TLL
Spanish: horma n form TLL
Old French: forme n.fem form, shape W7
Middle French: conformer vb to conform W7
deformer vb to deform W7
enformer vb to inform W7
plate-forme n.fem diagram, map, flat form W7
reformer vb to form again W7
uniforme adj uniform W7
French: format n.masc format W7
forme n form TLL
morphème n.masc morpheme W7
Italian: forma n form TLL
Latvian: pamirkšķināt, pamirkšķinu, pamirkšķināju vb to blink LRC
Greek: amorphos adj amorphous AHD
μεταμορφόω vb to transform LRC
metamorphōsis n.fem metamorphosis, transformation W7
morphē n.fem form W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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