Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. mer-, merə-   'to rub, wipe; pack, rob'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub, to Rob; Robber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mare, mære, mere n.fem goblin, nightmare ASD/IEW
mortere n.masc mortar W7
Middle English: marble n marble W7
morsel n morsel W7
morter n mortar W7
remorse n remorse W7
English: amaranth n imaginary flower which never fades AHD/W7
marasmus n progressive emaciation AHD/W7
marble n metamorphic limestone W7
morbid adj re: disease AHD/W7
mordacious adj caustic, sharp/biting in style/manner AHD/W7
mordant adj incisive, biting/caustic in thought/style/manner AHD/W7
mordent n musical ornament: quick alternation of principal tone with tone below AHD/W7
morsel n bite, small piece of food AHD/W7
nightmare n incubus, evil spirit that oppresses during sleep AHD/CDC
premorse adj bitten off, terminated abruptly/irregularly AHD/W7
remorse n self-reproach, gnawing distress over guilt AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: marmer n marble TLL
German: Mahr n.masc nightmare IEW
Marmor n marble TLL
Nachtmahr n.masc nightmare IEW
North Germanic  
Old Norse: morna, mornað vb to waste away LRC
Danish: marmor n marble TLL
Swedish: marmor n marble TLL
Latin: amarantus n.neut amaranth W7
marmor n marble LRC
morbidus adj morbid, diseased W7
morbus, morbī n.masc illness, disease LRC
mordax, mordacis adj biting W7
mordeo, mordēre, momordī, morsus vb to bite W7
morsus, morsūs n.masc action of biting W7
mortarium n.masc mortar W7
praemordeo, praemordēre, praemordī, praemorsus vb to bite off in front W7
remordeo, remordēre, remordī, remorsus vb to bite again W7
remorsus, remorsūs n.masc remorse; act of biting again W7
Late Latin: marasmus n.masc marasmus, exhaustion, wasting away W7
Medieval Latin: remorsus, remorsūs n.masc guilt, remorse W7
New Latin: amaranthus n amaranth AHD
Portuguese: mármore n marble LRC
Spanish: mārmol n marble LRC
Old French: marbre n marble W7
mors n.masc bite W7
morsel n.masc morsel W7
Middle French: mordant adj harsh, mordant W7
mordre vb to bite W7
mortier n.masc mortar W7
remors n.masc remorse W7
French: marbre n marble LRC
Italian: marmo n marble LRC
mordènte adj mordant W7
Homeric Greek: μαρμάρεος adj flashing, sparkling, glittering LS
μάρμαρος n.masc block of stone LRC
Greek: amarantos adj unfading W7
marainw vb to waste away W7
marasmos n.masc marasmus, exhaustion W7
μαρμάρεος adj re: marble LS
μαρμάρῐνος adj re: marble LS
μάρμᾰρος n.masc marble, sparkling crystalline rock LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at