Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mereg̑-   'march, edge, border, frontier'

Semantic Field(s): Edge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: marc n marc W7
marc n.neut mark: half a pound ASD
mearc n.fem march: border, boundary ASD
mearcian vb to mark W7
*riddena-mearc n.fem land of knights, lit. riders' march LRC
Middle English: marche n march W7
margin n margin W7
mark n mark W7
marken vb to mark W7
English: demarcation n act of marking limits/boundaries AHD/CDC
Denmark prop.n Scandinavian country, lit. Dane-march LRC
emarginate adj having notched margin AHD/W7
Fenmarch prop.n east Rohan border in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
marc n residue from fruit pressing AHD/W7
march n mark, frontier, border region AHD/W7
march vb to walk steadily with regular stride AHD/W7
marchese n marquess AHD/W7
marchioness n wife/widow of marquess AHD/W7
margin n part of page outside main body of printed/written matter AHD/W7
Mark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
mark n border/boundary land AHD/W7
mark n old European weight/currency unit AHD/W7
mark vb to fix/trace limits/boundary (e.g. of land) AHD/W7
marka n Germanic mark: currency unit AHD
markka n Swedish mark: currency unit AHD
marquee n large field tent for party/reception/exhibition AHD/W7
marquess n nobleman ranked between duke and earl/count AHD/W7
marquetry n (insertion of) wood/shell/ivory in veneer applied to furniture AHD/W7
marquis n marquess AHD/W7
marquise n wife/widow of marquis AHD/W7
ostmark n E German monetary unit AHD
reichsmark n German mark (1925-48) W7
remark vb to mark distinctively AHD/W7
Riddermark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Westmarch prop.n Shire district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mark, merk n.fem mark: half a pound ASD
merke n mark/march, district ASD
merkia vb to mark ASD
Old Saxon: marka n mark/march, district ASD
markōn vb to mark ASD
Old Low German: marka n mark/march, district ASD
Old High German: marc(h)a, marka n mark/march, boundary ASD/IEW
marc(h)ōn, markjan, markēn vb to mark ASD/W7
Middle High German: marke n marka AHD
German: marschieren vb to march LRC
Reichsmark n.fem reichsmark LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mǫrk n.fem mark/march, forested border IEW
mǫrk n.fem mark (of silver) LRC
Icelandic: marka, merkja vb to mark ASD
mörk n mark/march, district, forested border ASD
mörk n.fem mark: half a pound ASD
Danish: mark n mark: land, field TLL
Swedish: mark n markka AHD
East Germanic  
Gothic: marka, markōs n.fem mark/march, borders (of a country) ASD/IEW
Latin: emargino, emarginare, emarginavi, emarginatus vb to deprive of a margin W7
margo, marginis n.fem border W7
Medieval Latin: marca n.fem mark/march, border region W7
marcensis adj re: border region(s) W7
marchio, marchionis n.masc marquess W7
marchionissa n.fem marchioness W7
Old French: marche n march W7
marchier vb to march, trample W7
Middle French: marc n.masc medieval coin W7
marchier vb to march, trample W7
marque n.fem mark, sign, brand W7
marquer vb to mark W7
marqueter vb to checker, inlay W7
marqueterie n.fem marquetry, inlay W7
remarquer vb to remark W7
French: marc n.masc marc; mark: unit of weight W7
marquis n.masc marquess W7
marquise n.fem marchioness; canopy, glass porch W7
remarquer vb to remark W7
Old Italian: marcare vb to remark W7
Italian: marchese n.masc marquess CID/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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