Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: merk̑-   'to grab, seize'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: marchant n merchant W7
market n market W7
mart n mart W7
mercenary n mercenary W7
mercer n mercer W7
mercurie n mercury W7
mercy n mercy W7
English: commerce n social intercourse: exchange of ideas/opinions/sentiments AHD/W7
market n meeting of people for trade purposes via private sale/purchase AHD/W7
mart n fair, gathering of people to buy/sell AHD/W7
mercenary n one who serves merely for wages AHD/W7
mercer n dealer in textile fabrics AHD/W7
merchant n trader, buyer/seller of commodities AHD/W7
Mercury prop.n [planet named for] herald/messenger of gods (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
mercury n heavy poisonous silver-white metal W7
mercy n clemency, compassion/forbearance shown to subject/offender AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: mar(c)t n mart, market W7
Dutch: markt n mart, market TLL
German: Markt n.masc mart LRC
North Germanic  
Swedish: marknad n market TLL
Oscan: amiricadut adj without remuneration W7
Latin: commercium n.neut dealing, selling W7
mercenarius adj who has wages W7
merces, mercedes wages W7
mercor, mercāri, mercātus vb to buy, trade W7
Mercurius prop.n.masc Mercury ELD
merx, mercis n.fem merchandise W7
Vulgar Latin: mercatans, mercatantis vb.pres.ptc/n trading; merchant W7
mercato, mercatāre vb to trade W7
Medieval Latin: merces, mercedes n.fem price in exchange, ranson, mercy W7
Old French: marcheant n.masc merchant W7
merci n.fem mercy W7
mercier n.masc mercer W7
mers n.fem merchandise W7
Old North French: market n.masc market W7
Middle French: commerce n.masc commerce, dealing, selling W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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