Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mə-r, genitive mə-n-és, mn̥tós   'hand'

Semantic Field(s): Hand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: muntar n family LRC
Old English: mund n.fem hand; shelter, protection LRC
mund-beorh n.masc sheltering-hill ASD
mundian vb.wk to guard, protect ASD
Middle English: comanden vb to command W7
commenden vb to commend W7
countermaunden vb to countermand W7
demaunden vb to demand W7
manere n manner W7
manicle n manacle W7
manuel adj manual W7
manumitten vb to manumit W7
recommenden vb to praise W7
remaunden vb to remand W7
English: amanuensis n secretary, one employed to copy manuscript/write from dictation AHD/W7
command n act of commanding, unit commanded W7
command vb to order, direct authoritatively AHD/W7
commando n military unit/command; raiding expedition AHD/W7
commend vb to entrust for care/preservation AHD/W7
countermand vb.trans to revoke (earlier command) by contrary order AHD/W7
demand n (act of) demanding, asking with authority W7
demand vb to ask (for), claim as due AHD/W7
emancipate vb.trans to release from one's care/responsibility granting legal rights AHD/W7
Éomund prop.n chief marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
manacle n handcuff, shackle for hand/wrist AHD/W7
manage n action/paces of trained riding horse AHD/W7
manage vb to control, handle AHD/W7
mandamus n writ issued by superior court commanding performance of specified official act/duty AHD/W7
mandate n authoritative command AHD/W7
manege n school for training horses/teaching horsemanship AHD/W7
manicotti n pasta tubes stuffed with meat/cheese AHD
manicure n manicurist AHD/W7
manicurist n one who treats hands/nails W7
maniple n long narrow band worn over left arm by ministers at mass AHD/W7
manipulation n treating/operating by hand AHD/W7
manner n sort, kind AHD/W7
manque adj short of/frustrated in fulfillment of talents/aspirations AHD/W7
manual adj re: hands AHD/W7
manubrium n anatomical part/process shaped like handle AHD/W7
manumit vb.trans to release from slavery AHD/W7
manus n distal segment of vertebrate forelimb including carpus and hand/forefoot AHD/W7
manuscript adj/n (re:) handwritten document AHD/W7
Mundberg, Mundburg prop.n a.k.a. Minas Tirith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
quadrumanous adj four-handed, having four feet with with opposable first digits AHD/CDC
recommend vb.trans to present as worth trial/acceptance AHD/W7
remand vb.trans to order back AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mund n guardian(ship) ASD
Dutch: commando n command AHD/W7
Afrikaans: kommando n commando AHD/W7
Old Saxon: mund n hand ASD
mundōn vb to guard, protect ASD
Old High German: mund n hand, protection LRC
muntōn vb to guard, protect, defend ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mund n hand LRC
mundr n bride-price LRC
Icelandic: mund n.fem hand ASD
Latin: amanuensis n.masc slave with secretarial duties W7
commendō, commendāre vb to commend, commit to one's charge W7
emancipo, emancipare, emancipavi, emancipatus vb to abandon property of, release from paternal authority W7
manceps, mancipis n.masc purchaser W7
mancipo, mancipāre vb to transfer ownership of W7
mandatum n.neut mission, charge W7
mando, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātum vb to commit, entrust, command LRC
manicae, manicarum n.fem long sleeves LRC
manicula n.fem little hand, plough handle W7
manipulus n.masc handful W7
manualis adj of the hand W7
manuarius adj of the hand W7
manubrium n.neut handle W7
manumitto, manumittere vb to free a slave W7
manus, manūs n.fem hand LRC
Vulgar Latin: commando, commandare vb to command W7
manuaria adj.fem of the hand W7
Late Latin: remando, remandāre vb to send back word W7
Medieval Latin: demandō, demandāre vb to ask via messenger W7
manipulus n.masc handful W7
recommendo, recommendare vb to recommend W7
New Latin: manubrium n.neut anatomical part/process shaped like handle W7
manus n.masc distal segment of vertebrate forelimb W7
Portuguese: mandarim n.masc public official in Chinese Empire W7
Spanish: comandar vb to command AHD/W7
comando n command AHD/W7
mandarin n.masc mandarin (small orange) W7
mandarina n.fem fruit of mandarin tree W7
Old French: comander vb to command W7
maniere n.fem manner, way of acting W7
Middle French: contremander vb to countermand W7
demander vb to demand W7
mandat n.masc mission W7
mander vb to command W7
manicle n.fem manacle W7
manuel n handbook W7
manumitter vb to free a slave W7
remander vb to send back word W7
French: commander vb to command AHD/W7
mandarine n.fem mandarin (small orange) W7
manège n.masc manege, roller-coaster W7
manipulation n.fem manipulation W7
manipule n.masc Roman army standard, fabric band worn by priest R1/W7
manque n.masc lack, need of W7
manquer vb to lack W7
Italian: maneggiare vb to manage W7
maneggio n.masc training/management of horse W7
mano n.fem hand, skill, ability W7
Albanian: marr vb to take, receive IEW
Gheg: mârr vb to take, receive LRC
Greek: μάρη n.fem hand LRC
Hittite: maniyahh- n to allot, apportion, administer LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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