Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. meug-, meuk-   'to slip, slide; meek'

Semantic Field(s): to Slip, Slide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sméag adj smart, shrewd, cunning, sagacious IEW
smēa(ga)n vb.str to seek, ponder, examine, investigate IEW/ASD
sméagol adj thin, narrow; slim, slender IEW
smoc(c) n.masc smock W7
smūgan vb.str to sneak, creep, crawl; slip, slide IEW/ASD
smygel(s) n.masc burrow, place to creep into ASD
Middle English: macche n match W7
meek adj meek W7
moiste adj moist W7
mowlde n mold W7
muscilage n mucilage W7
smok n smock W7
English: emunctory n organ for carrying off body wastes AHD/W7
match n wick/cord chemically prepared for burning AHD/W7
meek adj mild, enduring injury with patience/without resentment AHD/W7
moist adj damp, slightly/moderately wet AHD/W7
moisture n wetness TLL
mold n superficial growth on damp/decaying organic matter AHD/W7
mucilage n gelatinous substance (from seaweed) similar to plant gums AHD/W7
mucus n viscid slippery secretion from mucous membranes AHD/W7
mug n drizzle AHD/W7
muggy adj warm, damp, and close AHD/W7
musty adj stale/moldy in taste/odor AHD
saccharomyces n single-celled sugar-fermenting yeast AHD
schmuck n oaf, stupid/clumsy person AHD
Smaug prop.n worm/dragon in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
Sméagol prop.n a.k.a. Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
smial n hobbit-hole in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
smock n woman's undergarment AHD/W7
smug adj spruce, trim/smart in dress AHD/W7
smuggle vb to import/export secretly (without paying duties) AHD/W7
streptomyces soil actinomycetes AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: smokkelen vb to smuggle W7
Middle Low German: smuck adj supple, pliant W7
smucken vb to dress W7
Low German: smuck adj neat, smug W7
smuggeln vb to smuggle W7
Old High German: smocco n adornment W7
Middle High German: smiegen vb to creep, crawl ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mjūkr adj gentle W7
myki n dung W7
*smaug adj smart, shrewd, cunning, sagacious LRC
smjúga vb to pierce, creep through/under ICE
Icelandic: smjúga, smaug vb to pierce, creep through/under ICE
smogall, smugall adj penetrating ASD
smuga n.fem hole, narrow cleft to creep through ASD
Latin: emungo, emungere, emunxī, emunctus vb to clean the nose W7
mucidus adj slimy W7
mucus n.masc mucus W7
Vulgar Latin: muscidus adj moist W7
Late Latin: mucilago n.fem mucus; musty juice W7
New Latin: emunctorium n.neut handkerchief W7
streptomyces genus of soil actinomycetes W7
Middle French: meiche n.fem match, cord to fire firearms W7
moiste adj moist, wet W7
Latvian: izmaukt, izmaucu, izmaucu vb to be carved from, hollowed out LRC
Greek: mykēs n.masc a fungus W7
myxa n.fem mucus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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