Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: moru̯ī̆-   'maur, mire, ant'

Semantic Field(s): Insect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mȳre n mire IEW
Middle English: mire n mire W7
pissemire n pismire W7
English: formic adj re: vesicatory liquid acid AHD/W7
formicary n ant nest/mound AHD/W7
formicivorous adj ant-eating AHD
maur n ant OED
mire n ant OED
pismire n mire AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: miere n mire OED
Dutch: mier n mire OED
Middle Low German: mire n mire OED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: maurr n.masc maur LRC
Danish: myre n mire TLL
Swedish: myra n mire TLL
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: miera n mire CGo
Latin: formica n.fem maur W7
Medieval Latin: formicarium n.neut formicary W7
Portuguese: formiga n maur TLL
Spanish: hormiga n maur TLL
French: fourmi n maur TLL
Italian: formica n maur TLL
Greek: myrmēx n.masc maur W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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