Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mūs   'mouse; muscle'

Semantic Field(s): Mouse


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mūs n.fem mouse W7
mus(cel)le, muscle, muxle n.fem mussel W7/ASD
Middle English: mouse n mouse W7
muscle n mussel W7
muskadelle n muscatel W7
muske n musk W7
notemuge n nutmeg W7
English: epimysium n external connective-tissue muscle sheath AHD/W7
mouse, mice n.str small rodent(s) AHD/W7
murine adj re: mouse/mice AHD/W7
muscat n cultivated grape used to make wine/raisins AHD/W7
muscatel n sweet dessert wine AHD/W7
muscle n tissue functioning to produce motion AHD/W7
musk n substance with penetrating persistent odor AHD/W7
mussel n marine bivalve mollusk AHD/W7
must n musk AHD/W7
musteline adj re: fur-bearing mammal in weasel/marten family AHD
mysticete adj with baleen plates instead of teeth in upper jaw AHD/CDC
nutmeg n aromatic seed spice AHD/W7
perimysium n connective tissue sheathing bundles of muscle fibers AHD/W7
syringomyelia n chronic progressive spinal-cord disease AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: muis n mouse TLL
vleermuis n bat TLL
Old Saxon: fletharmūs n bat KSW
Old High German: fledarmūs n bat, moth KNW
mūs n mouse; muscle W7/ASD
muscula n.fem mussel W7/ASD
German: Fledermaus n bat TLL
Maus n.fem mouse; muscle ASD
Muschel n.fem mussel LRC
Muskel n.masc muscle TLL
North Germanic  
Icelandic: mús n mouse; muscle ASD
Danish: mus n mouse TLL
muskel n muscle TLL
Swedish: flädermus n bat TLL
mus n mouse TLL
muskel n muscle TLL
Latin: mus n.masc mouse, rat W7
muscada n.fem nutmeg W7
musculus n.masc muscle W7
Vulgar Latin: muscula n.fem mussel W7
Late Latin: muscus n.masc moss, musk W7
New Latin: -myelia sfx brain tissue W7
perimysium n.neut perimysium W7
syringomyelia n.fem syringomyelia W7
Middle French: musc n.masc musk W7
muscadel n.masc muscatel W7
muscle n.masc muscle W7
French: muscat n.masc variety of grapes with musk scent W7/R1
Old Provençal: muscadel, moscadel adj resembling musk W7
muscat n.masc type of wine W7
Provençal: musc n.masc musk W7
muscat n.masc type of grape W7
Greek: moschos n.masc/fem musk W7
mys n.masc mouse W7
Persian: mushk n musk, testicle W7
Sanskrit: muṣka n musk, testicle W7
mūṣ n mouse W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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