Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ne-, nō-, plural nē̆s-, nō̆s-   'we'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: sinn we, us TLL
Old English: unc pron.1.du.dat/acc (to) us two TLL
uncer pron.1.du.gen our two TLL
uncit pron.1.du.acc us two TLL
ūre our, ours ASD/W7
ūs us W7
Middle English: oure our W7
paternoster n Lord's prayer W7
us us W7
English: Nostratic prop.n hypothetical parent of Proto-Indo-European and other reconstructed languages AHD
nostrum n medicine of secret composition usu. lacking general repute AHD/W7
our re: us/ourselves esp. as possessors AHD/W7
ours re: us/ourselves esp. as possessors AHD/W7
paternoster n Lord's prayer AHD/W7
us re: we/ourselves AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ūs us ASD
ūser our ASD
Dutch: ons (to) us TLL
ons our TLL
onze ours TLL
Old Saxon: ūs us ASD
ūser our ASD
Old High German: uns us W7
unsēr, unsar our ASD/W7
unsih us ASD
German: uns us LRC
unser our LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: okkar pron.1.du.gen our two TLL
okkur pron.1.du.dat/acc (to) us two TLL
oss (to) us ASD
Danish: os (to) us TLL
Swedish: oss (to) us TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: une, unsis us ASD
unsara our ASD
Latin: nos we W7
noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours LRC
Medieval Latin: paternoster n.masc paternoster, Lord's prayer W7
Italian: noi we, us TLL
Russian: nam (to) us TLL
nas us TLL
Albanian: na we IEW
ne our, us IEW
Greek: ἡμέτερος our LRC
νω pron.1.du we two TLL
νωι pron.1.du we two TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at