Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ned- : ned-   'to net, bind, connect, roll up, twist together'

Semantic Field(s): to Bind, Knot (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: net n net W7
netel(e), netle n.fem nettle W7/ASD
Middle English: annexen vb to annex W7
nett n net W7
nettle n nettle W7
nouche n ouch, brooch W7
ouch n ouch W7
English: adnexa n conjoined/subordinate/associated anatomic parts AHD/W7
annex vb.trans to attach as quality/condition/consequence AHD/W7
connect vb to tie/join/fasten together AHD/W7
denouement n final outcome/unraveling of dramatic complication in literary work AHD/W7
net n meshed fabric twisted/knotted/woven together at intervals AHD/W7
net vb to catch/cover with net W7
nettle n coarse herb with stinging hairs AHD/W7
nexus n link, connection AHD/W7
node n predicament, entangling complication AHD/W7
nodule n small mass of rounded/irregular shape AHD/W7
nodus n difficulty, complication AHD/W7
noil n short textile fiber AHD
noose n loop with running knot that draws tighter AHD/W7
ouch n brooch, clasp AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: nazza, nezila n nettle W7/ASD
nezzi n net W7
nusca n clasp W7
German: Nessel n.fem nettle LRC
Netz n.neut net LRC
Latin: annecto, annectere, annexi, annexui, annectus vb to annex, bind/join to W7
cōnecto, cōnectere vb to connect W7
nectō, nectere, nexī, nexuī, nexus vb to bind W7
nodo, nodāre vb to tie W7
nodulus n.masc small knot W7
nodus n.masc knot W7
New Latin: adnexa vb.ptc.fem attached to W7
Old French: annexe n.fem part joined W7
annexer vb to join W7
desnoer vb to loosen, undo a knot W7
noer vb to tie W7
Middle French: desnouement n.masc untying W7
desnouer vb to untie W7
French: dénouement n.masc untying, denouement W7
Provençal: nous n.masc knot W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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