Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: neu-d-   'to grasp, make use of'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of, to Use


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: genēat n.masc retainer, companion LRC
nēat n.neut neat LRC
nēotan, nēat, nudon, noden vb.str.II to use, employ LRC
nīotan vb.str.II to use, employ ASD
nyt-wyrðe adj useful LRC
Middle English: neet n neat W7
English: Huguenot prop.n member of French Reformed communion AHD/W7
matelot(t)e n fish stewed in wine sauce AHD/W7
neat common domestic bovine(s) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nāt n neat ASD
niata vb to use ASD
Middle Dutch: mattenoot n bed-fellow AHD
Old Saxon: niotan vb to use ASD
Old High German: ganōz n companion, associate ASD
niuzan vb to use ASD
nōz n neat W7
German: Genoss(e) n companion, associate ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mötunautr n mess-mate AHD
njóta vb to benefit, derive benefit from LRC
Icelandic: naut n neat ASD
nautr n companion, associate ASD
njóta vb to use ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: niutan vb to use ASD
Old French: matenot n sailor, bunkmate W7
Middle French: Huguenot prop.n Huguenot, French Protestant W7
French: matelot n sailor W7
matelote n matelote W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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