Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: neu̯os, neu̯i̯os   'new'

Semantic Field(s): New


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nīwe, nēowe adj new, fresh ASD
Middle English: anewe adv anew MEV
new adj new W7
novel adj novel W7
novelte n novelty W7
novice n novice W7
span-new adj span-new W7
English: aneroid adj containing no liquid, actuated without liquid AHD/W7
anew adv afresh, once more/again W7
innovate vb to introduce as (if) new AHD/W7
misoneism n hatred/intolerance of something new/changed AHD/W7
neo- pfx new TLL
Neogaea prop.n New World, western hemisphere AHD/CDC
neon n colorless odorless inert gas AHD/W7
neonatal adj re: newborn (human) infant W7
neonate n newborn infant AHD
neoteric adj modern, recent in origin AHD/W7
new adj recent, having existed but a short time AHD/W7
nova n a suddenly brighter star AHD/W7
novation n substitution of new for old legal obligation AHD/W7
novel adj new, having no precedent AHD/W7
novel n invented (usu. long/complex) prose narrative re: human experience AHD/W7
novelty n something new/unusual AHD/W7
novercal adj re: stepmother AHD
novice n probationary member of religious community AHD/W7
novillada n bullfight with bulls under 4 years old AHD
novillero n bullfighter restricted to bulls under 4 years old AHD
renovate vb.trans to revive, restore to life/vigor/activity AHD/W7
span-new adj brand-new AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nīe adj new, fresh ASD
Dutch: nieuw adj new TLL
Old Saxon: nīwi adj new, fresh ASD
Old High German: niuwi, nīwi adj new ASD/W7
German: neu adj new LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: nȳr adj new W7
spānnȳr n lit. new chip of wood W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: niujis adj new, fresh ASD
Latin: innovo, innovare, innovavi, innovatus vb to renew W7
novellus adj new W7
novicius adj new, inexperienced W7
novō, novāre, novāvī, novātus vb to make new W7
novus, nova, novum adj new W7
renovo, renovare, renovavi, renovatus vb to renew W7
Late Latin: neotericus adj neoteric W7
novatio, novationis n.fem renewal, legal novation W7
New Latin: nova n.fem nova W7
Portuguese: novo adj new TLL
Spanish: novillada n.fem novillada LRC
novillero n.masc novillero LRC
nuevo adj new TLL
Middle French: novel adj new W7
noveleté n.fem novelty W7
novice n.masc new/young monk W7
French: anéroïde adj containing no liquid W7
neuf adj new TLL
Italian: misoneismo n.masc hatred of anything new CID/W7
novèlla n.fem short story W7
nuovo adj new TLL
Lithuanian: naũjas, naujà adj new LRC
Greek: nearos adj young W7
neos adj new, young W7
neōterikos adj youthful W7
neōterios adj.comp younger W7
Late Greek: nēron n.neut water W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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