Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: nog-, nogod(h)o-, nog-no-   'nude, naked'

Semantic Field(s): to Clothe, Dress, Clothes, Clothing


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: nocht adj naked LRC
Welsh: noeth adj naked LRC
Old English: nacod, næcad adj naked W7/ASD
Middle English: naked adj naked W7
English: denude vb.trans to strip all covering AHD/W7
gymnasium n room/building for sports activities AHD/W7
gymnast n expert in gymnastics AHD/W7
gymnosophist n naked ascetic AHD/W7
gymnosperm n vascular seed plant (e.g. conifer) AHD/W7
naan n flat round leavened bread of NW India AHD
naked adj nude, not covered by clothing AHD/W7
nude adj unclad, lacking something essential AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nakad adj naked ASD
Old High German: nac(c)kot, nachot, nahhut adj naked W7/ASD
German: nackt adj naked ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: nøkkviðr adj naked LRC
Icelandic: nökviðr adj naked ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: naqaþs adj naked LRC
Latin: denudo, denudāre vb to denude W7
gymnasium n.neut gymnasium W7
gymnosophista n.masc gymnosophist W7
nūdus, nūda, nūdum adj nude, bare, naked LRC
Middle French: gymnaste n.masc gymnast W7
Lithuanian: núogas adj naked LRC
Latvian: nuôgs adj naked LRC
Old Church Slavonic: nagъ adj naked LRC
Russian: nagóta adj naked LRC
Homeric Greek: γυμνός adj bare, naked, unarmed LRC
γυμνόω vb to denude, disarm LRC
Greek: gymnazw vb to exercise naked W7
gymnasion n.neut gymnasium W7
gymnastēs n.masc trainer W7
γυμνός adj naked, unclad LRC
gymnosophistēs n.masc gymnosophist W7
Hittite: nekumanza adj naked LRC
Armenian: merk adj naked LRC
Old Persian: *nagna- adj bare, naked AHD
Avestan: maγna adj naked LRC
Sanskrit: nagná- adj naked LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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