Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ok-   'to see, ogle; eye'

Semantic Field(s): to See, Eye


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æt-iewan vb.wk to show, appear GED
ē(a)ge n.neut eye ASD/W7
Northumbrian: ēawa vb.wk to show, appear GED
Mercian: ēawan vb.wk to show, appear GED
Middle English: aunteler n antler W7
dropesie n dropsy W7
eye n eye W7
inoculaten vb to insert bud in plant W7
oilet n eyelet W7
pirope n type of garnet W7
ulage n ullage, empty part of container W7
wawil-eghed adj walleyed W7
windowe n window W7
ydropesie n dropsy, edema W7
English: antler n solid deciduous deer horn AHD/W7
autopsy n postmortem examination AHD/W7
binocular adj re: both/two eyes W7
binoculars binocular optical instrument W7
catoptric adj re: mirror/reflected light AHD/W7
daisy n familiar wild Eurasian plant/flower AHD/CDC
diopter n optical instrument AHD/W7
diopter n unit of measurement: lens refractive power AHD/W7
dropsy n edema AHD/W7
exophthalmos n abnormal protrusion of eyeball AHD/W7
eye n organ of sight AHD/W7
eyelet n small hole to receive cord AHD/W7
inoculate vb.trans to communicate disease by introducing causative agent into tissue AHD/W7
inveigle vb.trans to entice, win over by flattery AHD/W7
iodopsin n photosensitive violet pigment in retinal cones AHD/W7
metope n space between triglyphs of Doric frieze AHD/W7
metopic adj re: forehead AHD
monocle n eyeglass for one eye AHD/W7
monocular adj re: one eye W7
myopia n defective vision re: distant objects AHD/W7
nyctalopia n night blindness AHD
ocellus n minute simple eye(spot) of invertebrate AHD/W7
ocular adj done/perceived by eye AHD/W7
oculist n ophthalmologist AHD/W7
oculomotor adj re: eyeball movement AHD
oculus n eyelike opening/ornament AHD
ogle vb to look with amorous invitation AHD/W7
ommatidium n small simple eye, part of compound arthropod eye AHD/W7
ommatophore n movable stalk ending with (snail) eye AHD
opsin n visual pigment protein in retina AHD
-opsis n.sfx structure resembling (some) thing AHD/W7
-opsy n.sfx examination AHD/W7
optic adj re: eye/vision AHD/W7
optoelectronics n physics re: interconversion of light/electricity AHD
optometry n art/profession of examining eye for defects AHD/W7
panoptic adj re: everything in view AHD
Pelops prop.n son of Tantalus served as food to the gods by his father (Greek mythology) LRC
phlogopite n red/brown form of mica AHD/W7
pinochle n game played with 48-card pack AHD/W7
presbyopia n inability of old eyes to focus sharply AHD
prosopography n statistical study describing people/characters in context AHD
prosopopoeia n figure of speech with absent/imaginary person represented as acting/speaking AHD/W7
pyrope n magnesium-aluminum garnet gemstone AHD/W7
rhodopsin n red photosensitive pigment in retinal rods of fishes/vertebrates AHD/W7
senopia n near-vision improvement due to old-age cataract AHD
synopsis n abstract, condensed outline/statement AHD/W7
triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
ullage n amount by which container lacks being full AHD/W7
walleyed adj re: having whitish iris AHD/W7
window n opening in wall to admit air/light AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ag(e), ach, oge n.neut eye ASD
Old Frankish: t-oeghen vb.wk to show GED
Middle Dutch: t-oenen vb.wk to show GED
Dutch: oog n.neut eye ASD
Old Saxon: ōga n.neut eye ASD
ōgian vb.wk to show GED
Low German: oegeln vb to see W7
oog n eye W7
Old High German: ouga, auga n.neut eye ASD/W7
ougan, auckan vb.wk to show GED
Middle High German: ouge n.neut eye ASD
z-öugen vb.wk to show GED
z-ounen vb.wk to show GED/IEW
German: Auge n.neut eye ASD
Binokel n game resembling bezique W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: auga n eye W7
eygr adj eyed W7
vagl-eygr adj walleyed W7
vindauga n window W7
Old Icelandic: eygja vb.wk to show GED
Icelandic: auga n eye ASD
Danish: vindue n window TLL
øje n eye TLL
Swedish: öga n.neut eye ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *augjan vb.wk.I to show GED
áugō n.wk.neut eye LRC
Crimean Gothic: oeghene eyes CGo
Latin: hydrops n.masc dropsy W7
inoculo, inoculare, inoculavi, inoculatus vb to graft in W7
ocellus n.masc small eye W7
oculus, oculi n.masc eye LRC
Pelops n.masc Pelops W7
prosopopoeia n.fem figure of rhetoric W7
pyropus n.masc red bronze W7
Vulgar Latin: anteocularis adj located before the eye W7
anteoculo, anteoculāre vb to put before one's eyes W7
Late Latin: monoculus adj monocular, having one eye W7
ocularis adj re: eye(s) W7
synopsis n.fem overview W7
Medieval Latin: opticus adj of sight W7
New Latin: myopia n.fem defective vision re: distant objects W7
ocellus n.masc.dim eye(spot) of invertebrate W7
ommatidium n.neut part of compound arthropod eye W7
Portuguese: ôlho n eye TLL
Spanish: ojo n eye TLL
Old French: antollier n antler AHD
avogle adj blind W7
avogler vb to make blind W7
ouil n.masc eye, bunghole W7
ydropesie n.fem hydropsy W7
Middle French: antoillier adj located before the eye(s) W7
aveugler vb to blind, hoodwink W7
dioptre n.masc diopter W7
eullage n.masc act of filling cask W7
eullier vb to fill a cask W7
oil n.masc eye W7
oillet n.masc.dim flower; small eye W7
optique adj re: sight W7
pirope n.fem a red gem W7
French: binocle n.masc pair of eye-glasses W7
monocle n.masc single eye-glass W7
oculiste n.masc oculist W7
œil, yeux n.masc eye(s) TLL
Italian: occhio n eye TLL
Lithuanian: akìs n.fem eye LRC
Latvian: acs n.fem eye LRC
uzacs n.fem eyebrow LRC
Old Church Slavonic: oko n.neut eye LRC
Greek: autopsia n.fem act of seeing with one's own eyes W7
exophthalmos adj having prominent eyes W7
katoptrikos adj catoptric W7
katoptron n.neut mirror W7
katopsomai vb to be going to observe W7
metopē n.fem metope W7
myōpia n.fem myopia W7
myōps, myōpos adj having half-shut eyes W7
omma, ommatos n.neut eye W7
opē n.fem opening W7
optikos adj re: sight W7
ophthalmos n.masc eye W7
-opsia sfx looking like W7
opsis n.fem/sfx appearance; having likeness of W7
opsomai vb to be going to see W7
πρόσωπον n.neut mask, face, person LRC
prosōpopoiia n.fem figure of rhetoric W7
pyrōpos adj fiery-eyed W7
σύνοπτος adj visible LRC
synopsis n.fem comprehensive view W7
hydrōps n.masc dropsy W7
phlogōpos adj fiery-looking W7
ōps n.fem eye, face W7
Sanskrit: aksha n.neut eye ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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