Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ong-   'to anoint'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: prēon n.masc preen ASD/W7
Middle English: anointen vb to anoint W7
inunction n inunction W7
oignement, ointment n ointment W7
preinen vb to preen W7
prene n preen W7
unctioun n unction W7
unctuous adj unctuous W7
English: anoint vb.trans to apply oil/oily substance AHD/W7
inunction n anointing, act of applying oil/ointment AHD/W7
ointment n salve/unguent for skin application AHD/W7
preen n pin, brooch AHD/W7
preen vb to trim/dress with bill (re: bird) AHD/W7
unction n act of anointing (as rite of healing/consecration) AHD/W7
unctuous adj oily, fatty AHD/W7
unguent n ointment, healing/soothing salve AHD/W7
Scots English: pre(y)ne n preen, pin made of wire ASD
West Germanic  
Dutch: priem n preen ASD
Old High German: ancho n butter W7
Middle High German: pfrieme n awl W7
German: Pfriem n preen ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: prjónn n preen, knitting pin ASD
Latin: inunctio, inunctionis n.fem unction W7
inunguo, inunguere, inunxi, inunctus vb to anoint W7
unctio, unctionis n.fem unction W7
unctum n.neut ointment W7
unguentum n.neut balm, unguent W7
unguo, unguere, unxi, unctus vb to smear, anoint W7
Medieval Latin: unctuosus adj creamy, unctuous W7
Old French: enoindre vb to anoint AHD
enoint vb.ptc anointed AHD
oignement n.masc balm, unguent W7
Middle French: enoindre vb to anoint W7
enoint vb.ptc anointed W7
unctueux adj creamy, unctuous W7
Sanskrit: añjati vb to salve W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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