Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: org̑hi-, r̥g̑hi-   'testicle'

Semantic Field(s): Testicle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: orbiculer adj orbicular W7
orbit n orbit W7
English: orb n sphere carrying orbiting body around earth AHD/W7
orbicular adj circular, spherical AHD/W7
orbiculate adj orbicular AHD
orbit n bony socket of eye AHD/W7
orchic adj testicular W2I
orchid n perennial epiphytic/terrestrial plant/flower AHD/W7
orchiectomy n surgical removal of testicle(s) AHD
orchitis n testicular inflammation AHD
West Germanic  
German: Orchidee n.fem orchid LRC
Latin: orbiculus n.masc.dim small orb/disk/circle W7
orbis n.masc orb, disk, ring, circle W7/CLD
orbita n.fem rut, track W7
Late Latin: orbicularis adj rounded, orbicular W7
New Latin: Orchis n.fem orchid (genus name) W7
Middle French: orbe n.fem orb, disk, circle W7
orbiculaire adj orbicular W7
Greek: ὄρχις n.masc testicle LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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