Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ost(h)-, ost(h)i, ost(h)r̥(g), oblique ost(h)-(e)n-   'os, bone'

Semantic Field(s): Bone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: oistre n oyster W7
English: astragal n narrow half-round molding AHD/W7
astragalus n proximal bone of higher vertebrate tarsus AHD/W7
endosteum n vascular connective tissue layer AHD/W7
exostosis n spur/bony outgrowth from bone/root of tooth AHD/W7
os n bone AHD/W7
osseous adj bony AHD/W7
ossicle n small bone/calcareous body part AHD/W7
ossuary n depository for bones of dead AHD/W7
oste(o)- pfx bone AHD
osteoma n benign tumor of bony tissue AHD
osteomalacia n deficiency disease, lit. bone-softness AHD
ostracize vb.trans to exile by popular vote AHD/W7
ostracod n (mostly freshwater) small active crustacean AHD/W7
ostracoderm n.arch extinct primitive armored jawless fish-like vertebrate AHD
ostracon n potsherd (used for writing/drawing) AHD
oyster n marine bivalve mollusk with rough irregular shell AHD/W7
periosteum n connective tissue membrane investing bones AHD/W7
periostracum n hard protective covering of mollusk shell AHD
synost(e)osis n union via bone, fusion of normally separate bones AHD/CDC
teleost n fish with bony rather than cartilaginous skeleton AHD/W7
British English: ostracise vb.trans to ostracize LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: oester n oyster TLL
German: Auster n oyster TLL
North Germanic  
Danish: østers n oyster TLL
Swedish: ostron n oyster TLL
Old Latin: os, ossua n.neut bone(s) W7
Latin: os, ossis n.neut bone W7
osseus adj osseous, re: bone W7
ossiculum n.neut small bone W7
ossuarium n.neut urn containing bones W7
ossuarius adj of bones W7
ostrea n.fem oyster W7
Late Latin: periosteon n.neut periosteum W7
New Latin: astragalus n.masc astragalus W7
endosteum n.neut bone in the inside W7
exostosis n.fem bony growth W7
periosteum n.neut tissue membrane investing bones W7
Portuguese: ostra n oyster TLL
Spanish: ostra n oyster TLL
Middle French: oistre n.fem oyster W7
French: huître n oyster TLL
Italian: ostrica n oyster TLL
Greek: astragalos n.masc ankle-bone; molding W7
exostōsis n.fem dedication W7
osteon n.neut bone W7
ostrakizw vb to banish by voting (with ostracons) W7
ostrakon n.neut shell, ostracon W7
ostreon n.neut oyster W7
periosteos adj around the bone W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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