Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. pel-   'gray, dull color; pallor'

Semantic Field(s): White, Light in Color


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fealg n piece of plowed land W7
fealo, fealu adj fallow, tawny, pale (yellow) ASD/IEW
fealu n.neut fallow ground ASD
Middle English: appallen vb to become pale W7
falcon n falcon W7
falow adj fallow W7
falwe n fallow W7
gerfaucun n gyrfalcon, arctic falcon W7
pale adj pale W7
palen vb to pale W7
English: appall vb to fail, weaken AHD/W7
falcon n (trained) hawk: bird predator AHD/W7
Fallohide prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fallow adj dusky, light yellowish brown AHD/W7
fallow n plowed land AHD/W7
fauvism n art characterized by free form/vivid color AHD/W7
gyrfalcon n large arctic falcon AHD/W7
pale adj pallid, deficient in color AHD/W7
pale vb to make/become pale/pallid AHD/W7
pallid adj wan, deficient in color AHD/W7
pallor n paleness, deficiency in color AHD/W7
palomino n pale-colored horse AHD/W7
pelargonium n southern African herb in geranium family AHD/W7
polio n poliomyelitis LRC
poliomyelitis n acute infectious viral disease involving muscular atrophy/paralysis AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: falcho n falcon W7
falo adj pale, fallow W7
German: Falke n.masc falcon LRC
Latin: palleo, pallēre vb to be pale W7
pallesco, pallescere vb to become pale W7
pallidus adj pale W7
pallor n.masc paleness W7
palumbes n.masc ringdove W7
palumbinus adj of doves W7
Late Latin: falco, falconis n falcon W7
New Latin: pelargonium n.neut plant(s) in geranium family W7
poliomyelitis n.fem polio W7
Portuguese: falcão n falcon TLL
Spanish: halcón n falcon TLL
palomino n.masc chick, dove offspring W7
Old French: apalir vb to grow pale W7
Middle French: apalir vb to grow pale W7
girfaucon n.masc gyrfalcon W7
pâle adj pale W7
French: faucon n.masc falcon W7
fauve n.masc wild animal W7
fauvisme n.masc fauvism (art movement) W7
pâlir vb to grow pale W7
Italian: falcone n falcon TLL
Greek: pelargos n.masc stork W7
peleia n.fem dove W7
polios adj gray W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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