Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. perg-   'fear; to frighten'

Semantic Field(s): Fear, Fright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forht adj fearful, afraid, timid ASD/RPN
forhtian, forhtig(e)an, forhtegean vb.wk to fear, be afraid ASD/RPN
fyrhtan vb to frighten, tremble ASD/RPN
fyrhto, fyrhtu n fright, fear ASD/RPN
Middle English: friʒt, fryʒt n fright CDC
English: fright n fear, alarm LRC
frighten vb to terrify, make/become afraid W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fruchta n fright RPN
Old Dutch: vorght, vrocht n fright CDC
vurcht, vrucht n fright ASD
Old Saxon: for(a)ht, furht adj timid, fearful ASD
for(a)hta n fright CDC
Middle Low German: vorchte, vrochte, vruchte n fright CDC
Low German: frucht n fright CDC
Old High German: for(a)hta, forohta n.fem fright CDC/RPN
forht adj timid, fearful ASD
furhten vb to fear RPN
Middle High German: vorht(e) n.fem fright ASD/CDC
German: Furcht n.fem fright ASD/CDC
fürchten vb to fear LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: frygt n.masc/fem fright ASD/CDC
Swedish: fruktan n.fem fright ASD/CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: faurhtei n.fem fright ASD/RPN
faurhtjan vb.wk.I to fear, be afraid LRC
faurhts adj timid, afraid, fearful RPN
Tocharian B: pärsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
prāsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
proskiye n fear RPN
prosko n fear RPN
Tocharian A: pärsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
prask- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
praski n fear RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at