Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: perku-s   'oak'

Semantic Field(s): Oak, Tree, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fe(o)rh, feorg, fiorh, fyorh n.str.masc/neut life, soul, spirit ASD
feorh-hūs n.neut body, lit. life-house LRC
firgen, fyrgen n.neut mountain, mountain-woodland ASD
fyrh n fir W7
Middle English: cork n cork, bark W7
fir n fir W7
English: cork n lightweight elastic outer tree bark AHD
fir n symmetrical tree of pine family AHD/W7
Firienfeld prop.n Dunharrow meadow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Firienwood prop.n White Mountains forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halifirien prop.n beacon hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
quercetin n yellow crystalline pigment AHD/W7
quercitron n oak AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: kurk n cork AHD
Old Saxon: fer(a)h n.neut life, soul ASD
Low German: korck n cork AHD
Old High German: fërah, ferh n.neut life, spirit ASD
forha n fir W7
kien-foraha n pine KDW
Middle High German: vërch n.neut life ASD
German: Ferch n.neut life, blood ASD
Föhre n.fem Scots pine LRC
Kiefer n.fem pine (tree) TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: firar men, people LRC
Icelandic: fjör n.neut life ASD
Fjörgyn prop.n.fem Mother-earth ASD
Danish: fyr n fir, pine TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: faírguni n.str.neut mountain LRC
fairhwus n world ASD
Latin: quercetum n.neut oak forest W7
quercus n.fem oak (tree) W7
New Latin: Quercus n.masc oak (genus) W7
Spanish: corcho n.masc cork LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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