Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: peu̯ōr, pū̆r, genitive pu-n-és, locative puu̯éni   'fire'

Semantic Field(s): Fire (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fȳr, fīr n.neut fire, hearth ASD/RPN
Middle English: fire n fire W7
English: empyreal adj celestial, re: highest heaven AHD/W7
fire n combustion manifested as heat/light/flame AHD/W7
Firefoot prop.n Eomer's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Fire-mountain prop.n Orodruin, a.k.a. Mount Doom in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pyre n combustible heap for burning body as funeral rite AHD/W7
pyretic adj febrile, re: fever AHD/W7
pyrite n iron sulfide: gold/brass-colored mineral AHD/W7
pyrites n metallic sulfide mineral AHD
pyro- pfx fire, heat AHD
pyrosis n heartburn AHD/W7
pyrrhotite n ferrous sulfide: bronze-colored mineral AHD/W7
Scots English: fyre n fire ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fior, fiur n.neut fire ASD
Frisian: fjœr n fire ASD
Dutch: vuur n.neut fire ASD
Old Saxon: fiur n.neut fire ASD
Low German: füer, vü(e)r n.neut fire ASD
Old High German: fiur n.neut fire ASD/RPN
Middle High German: viu(we)r, viwer n.neut fire ASD
German: Feuer n.neut fire ASD
Pyrrhotin n pyrrhotite W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: fúrr n.masc fire ASD/RPN
Danish: fyr n.masc/fem fire ASD
Swedish: fyr n.masc fire, beacon, lighthouse ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fōn, funins n fire RPN
Umbrian: pir n fire RPN
Latin: pyra n.fem pyre W7
Late Latin: empyreus, empyrius adj empyreal W7
New Latin: pyrosis n.fem heartburn W7
Old Prussian: panno n fire RPN
Old Czech: púř n embers, glowing ashes RPN
Homeric Greek: πῦρ n.neut fire LRC
Greek: pyra n.fem pyre W7
pyretikos adj re: fever W7
pyretos n.masc fever W7
πυρίη n.fem vapor bath LRC
pyritēs adj re: fire W7
pyroun vb to burn W7
pyrrhos adj red W7
pyrrhotēs n.fem redness W7
pyrōsis n.fem burning W7
Late Greek: empyrios adj empyreal, re: fire within W7
Luwian: pa-a-h̯u-u-ur n fire RPN
Hittite: pa-ah̯-h̯u-e-na-aš of fire RPN
pa-ah̯-h̯ur n fire RPN
pa-ah̯-h̯u-ur n fire RPN
pa-ah̯-h̯u-wa-ar n fire RPN
Armenian: hur n fire RPN
Tocharian B: puwar n fire RPN
Tocharian A: por n fire RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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