Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és   'father'

Semantic Field(s): Father


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: athir n father LRC
Old English: fæder, feder n.masc father LRC
fæd(e)ra n.masc paternal uncle KEW
Middle English: fader n father W7
patriarche n patriarch W7
patricion n patrician W7
patrimonie n patrimony W7
patron n patron W7
English: allopatric adj occurring in isolation/different areas AHD/W7
eupatrid n ancient Athenian hereditary aristocrat AHD/W7
expatriate vb to banish, drive into exile AHD/W7
father n sire, man who begot child AHD/W7
forefather n ancestor AHD/W7
gaffer n godfather, grandfather, old fellow OED
godfather n man who sponsors child at baptism W7
goombah companion, associate, older friend AHD
grandfather n parent's father; ancestor LRC
padre n Christian clergyman AHD/W7
paternal adj re: father AHD/W7
patri- pfx father AHD
patriarch n scriptural father of human race/Hebrew people AHD/W7
patrician n member of noble family (of ancient Rome) AHD/W7
patrimony n estate inherited from father/other ancestor AHD/W7
patriot n one who loves his native country AHD/W7
patroclinous adj re: inherited characteristics closer to father than mother AHD
patron n one named/chosen/honored as special guardian/protector/supporter AHD/W7
patronymic adj/n (re:) paternal ancestor's name AHD/W7
père n father AHD
perpetrate vb.trans to commit, be guilty of AHD/W7
sympatric adj occurring in same area AHD/W7
American English: compadre n buddy, companion, close friend/associate AHD
British English: pater n father AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fader, feder, feider n.masc father ASD
Frisian: faer n.masc father ASD
Dutch: vader n.masc father ASD
Old Saxon: fadar, fader n.masc father ASD
fediro n paternal uncle KSW
Low German: vader n.masc father ASD
Old High German: fatar, fater n.masc father ASD
fetiro n paternal uncle; male cousin KDW
Middle High German: vater n.masc father ASD
German: Vater n.masc father LRC
Vetter n.masc male cousin TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: faðir n.masc father LRC
Icelandic: faðir n.masc father ASD
Danish: fader n.masc father ASD
fætter n male cousin TLL
Swedish: fader n.masc father ASD
far n father TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: fadar n.masc father LRC
Latin: pater, patris n.masc father LRC
paternus adj of a father W7
patres senators W7
patria, patriae n.fem fatherland, native country LRC
patricius adj of patricians W7
patrimonium n.neut property inherited from father W7
patrius, patria, patrium adj paternal LRC
patro, patrare vb to accomplish W7
patronus n.masc patron, defender W7
perpetratus vb.ptc perpetrated W7
perpetro, perpetrare vb to perpetrate W7
propritim adv as one's own LRC
proprius, propria, proprium adj proper, own LRC
Late Latin: patriarcha n.masc patriarch W7
patriota n.masc patriot, countryman W7
Medieval Latin: expatriatus vb.ptc having left one's country W7
expatriō, expatriāre vb to leave one's country W7
patronus n.masc patron saint, patron of benefice W7
Portuguese: padre n.masc father, priest W7
pai n father TLL
Spanish: compadre n.masc friend, compadre AHD
padre n.masc father TLL
Old French: patriarche n.masc patriarch W7
Middle French: patricien n.masc patrician W7
patrimonie n.fem patrimony W7
patriote adj loving one's country W7
patron n.masc patron saint; one's employer W7
French: père n father TLL
Italian: padre n father TLL
Homeric Greek: πατήρ n.masc father LRC
πάτρη n home, native land/country LRC
Greek: eupatridēs adj of noble family W7
πατριά n.fem lineage, fatherland LRC
patriarchēs n.masc patriarch W7
patrios adj of one's father W7
patriōtēs adj patriot, countryman W7
Classical Armenian: hayr n father LRC
Avestan: pitar- n father LRC
Sanskrit: pitár- n father LRC
Tocharian A: pācar n father LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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