Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pi-lo-   'hair, pile, pilus'

Semantic Field(s): Hair


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pluccian, ploccan vb.wk to pluck, tear ASD/W7
Middle English: catyrpel n caterpillar W7
peluche n plush W7
pile n pile, hair, plumage ODE
piles piles W7
pillage n pillage W7
plucken vb to pluck W7
English: caterpillar n elongated wormlike larva of moth/butterfly AHD/W7
depilate vb.trans to remove hair from AHD/W7
horripilation n goosebumps, hair bristling from fear/cold AHD
pelage n hairy covering of mammal AHD/W7
pilar adj covered with hair, re: hair AHD
pile n coat/surface of close fine furry hairs AHD/W7
piles hemorrhoids AHD/W7
pileus n umbrella-shaped fungal fruiting body AHD/W7
piliferous adj bearing/producing hair AHD
pillage n act of looting/plundering AHD/W7
pilocarpine n alkaloid isolated from pilocarpus AHD/CDC
pilocarpus n genus of polypetalous shrubs CDC
pilose adj covered with soft hair AHD/W7
pilus n hair, hairlike structure AHD
pluck vb to pull off, pick out AHD/W7
plush n fabric with long even pile AHD/W7
poilu n French soldier AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: pijl n pile, fine hair ODE
Dutch: plukken vb to pluck ASD
Middle Low German: pile n downy plumage ODE
Middle High German: pflücken vb to pluck ASD
German: pflücken vb to pluck LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: plokka, plukka vb to pluck ASD
Latin: depilatus vb.ptc depilated W7
depilo, depilāre vb to remove hair W7
pila n.fem ball (to play with) W7
pilleum n.neut felt cap W7
pil(l)eus n.masc felt cap W7
pilosus adj hairy W7
pilus n.masc hair W7
New Latin: pileus n.masc fungal fruit W7
Portuguese: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Spanish: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Old French: poil n (type of) cloth, fabric ODE
Old North French: catepelose n.masc hairy cat W7
Anglo-French: pyle, peil n (type of) cloth, fabric ODE
Middle French: peille n.fem rag W7
pelage n.masc fur W7
pillage n.masc looting W7
piller vb to plunder W7
poil n.masc hair W7
poilu adj hairy W7
French: pelage n.masc fur W7
poilu adj hairy W7
Italian: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Greek: πῖλος n.masc pile, mat; wool, hair LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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