Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pō(i)- : pī-, and (from pō-), po-   'to bib, drink'

Semantic Field(s): to Drink


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ibid vb to drink RPN
Old English: bēor n.masc beer ASD
Middle English: ber n beer W7
beverage n beverage W7
bibben vb to bib W7
enbiben vb to imbibe W7
enbrewen vb to imbrue W7
pocioun n potion W7
poison n poison W7
potacioun n potation W7
English: beer n somewhat bitter malted/hopped alcoholic beverage AHD/W7
beverage n liquid for drinking AHD/W7
bib vb to drink AHD/W7
bibulous adj highly absorbent AHD/W7
imbibe vb to steep, soak AHD/W7
imbrue vb.trans to stain, drench AHD/W7
pinocytosis n cell ingesting fluid through membrane AHD
pirog n meat/fish patty AHD
poison n substance that kills/injures/impairs organism AHD/W7
potable adj suitable for drinking AHD/W7
potamology n scientific study of rivers AHD
potation n alcoholic drink/brew AHD/W7
potatory adj re: drinking AHD/W7
potion n liquid dose/mixture AHD/W7
symposium n drinking party (esp. following banquet) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: biar n.neut beer ASD
Dutch: bier n.neut beer ASD
Low German: beer n.neut beer ASD
Old High German: bior, pier n.neut beer ASD/W7
German: Bier n.neut beer ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: bjōr(r) n.masc beer ASD
Latin: bibō, bibere vb to drink RPN
bibulus adj fond of drinking W7
imbibō, imbibere vb to imbibe, drink in, conceive W7
potatio, potationis n.fem act of drinking W7
potatus vb.ptc drunk W7
pōtiō, n.fem drink, potion W7
pōtō, pōtāre vb to drink RPN
pōtus vb.ptc drunk (up) W7
symposium n.neut symposium W7
Late Latin: potabilis adj drinkable W7
potatorius adj re: drinking W7
Portuguese: beber vb to bib TLL
Spanish: beber vb to bib TLL
Old French: poison n.masc poison, poisonous drink W7
Middle French: abrevrer vb to drench W7
beivre vb to drink W7
bevrage n.masc beverage W7
embevrer vb to soak, drench W7
embiber vb to soak, imbibe W7
potation n.fem brew, beverage W7
potion n.fem drink, potion W7
French: beuverie n.fem drinking party LRC
boire vb to bib TLL
Italian: bevere vb to bib TLL
Old Prussian: poieiti vb to drink RPN
Old Church Slavonic: pirŭ n feast AHD
piti, pijǫ, pijęši vb to drink LRC
Albanian: pi n drink RPN
Lesbian: πώνω vb to drink RPN
Homeric Greek: πῑ́νω vb to drink, drain, quaff LRC
Greek: πίνω vb to drink RPN
sympinein vb to drink together W7
symposion n.neut symposium W7
Sanskrit: páyate vb to drink, swallow RPN
pā́ti vb to drink, swallow RPN
píbati vb to drink, swallow RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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