Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pork̑o-s   'porker, pig(let)'

Semantic Field(s): Pig


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: orc n pig LRC
Old English: *feargian vb to farrow W7
fearh, færh, ferh n.masc young pig ASD/W7
Middle English: farwen vb to farrow W7
pork n pork W7
English: aardvark n nocturnal ant-eating African mammal AHD/W7
farrow n litter of pigs W7
farrow vb to bear/give birth (to swine) AHD/W7
porcelain n fine ceramic ware AHD/W7
porcine adj re: swine/pigs AHD/W7
pork n swine flesh (as food) AHD/W7
porker n hog, young pig fattened for slaughter W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: varken n pig AHD
Dutch: vark n pig AHD
Afrikaans: aardvark n aardvark W7
Old High German: farah n piglet, young pig W7
German: Porzelan n.neut porcelain LRC
Latin: porcellus n.masc.dim small pig W7
porcinus adj re: pigs W7
porcus n.masc pig, hog W7
Old French: pork n.masc pork, pig W7
Middle French: percelaine n.fem porcelain; cowrie shell W7
Italian: porcellana n.fem porcelain W7
porcèllo n.masc little pig W7
Lithuanian: paršẽlis n cattle LRC
Kurdish: purs n pork; cattle LRC
Sanskrit: pā́shu- n cattle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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