Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pū̆- : peu̯ə-   'to rot, stink'

Semantic Field(s): to Spoil, Stinking, Bad Smelling


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fūl adj foul W7
fȳlan vb.wk to file W7/ASD
fȳlþ n.fem filth W7
Middle English: defilen vb to defile W7
defoulen vb to foil, defile W7
filen vb to file W7
filth n filth W7
fog n fog W7
foilen vb to foil, full cloth W7
foul adj foul W7
English: defile vb.trans to dirty, make filthy AHD/W7
empyema n presence of pus in body cavity AHD/W7
file vb.trans to defile, corrupt AHD/W7
filth n foul/putrid matter AHD/W7
fog n dead/decaying grass (in winter) AHD/W7
foil vb.trans to trample AHD/W7
foul adj rotten, loathsome, offensive to senses AHD/W7
fulmar n Arctic seabird AHD/W7
fuzzy adj resembling/covered with fuzz AHD/W7
potpourri n stew, different meats/vegetables cooked together AHD/CDC
purulent adj re: pus AHD/W7
pus n thick opaque yellowish white body fluid AHD/W7
putrescent adj putrid, re: putrefaction AHD/W7
putrid adj rotten, in state of putrefaction AHD/W7
suppurate vb.intrans to form/discharge pus AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ful adj foul ASD
Frisian: fule, fuwle adj foul ASD
Dutch: vuil adj foul ASD
Old Saxon: fūliþa n.fem filth ASD
Low German: fussig adj loose, spongy W7
fu(u)l, vuul adj foul ASD
Old High German: fūl adj foul W7
fūlida n.fem filth ASD
Middle High German: vūl adj foul ASD
German: faul adj foul ASD
Fäule n.fem rot, decay LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fúinn adj rotten, decayed LRC
fūll adj foul W7
fūlmār n gull, fulmar W7
Danish: fuul adj foul ASD
Swedish: ful adj foul ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fuls adj foul ASD
Latin: purulentus adj purulent W7
pus n.neut pus W7
puteo, putēre vb to stink W7
puter adj putrid W7
putreo, putrēre vb to be rotten W7
putrescens, putrescentis adj/vb.ptc rotting W7
putresco, putrescere vb to grow rotten W7
putridus adj putrid W7
putris adj putrid W7
suppuratus vb.ptc suppurated W7
suppuro, suppurare vb to suppurate W7
Late Latin: empyema n.neut empyema W7
Old French: defouler vb to trample W7
fouler vb to foul, trample W7
Middle French: fouler vb to trample W7
French: pourri adj rotten W7
Greek: pyon n.neut pus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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