Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: phō̆l-   'to fall'

Semantic Field(s): to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: befeallan vb to fall, befall AHD
feall, fiell n.masc fall, ruin, death ASD/RPN
feallan, fēol(l), fēollon, feallen vb.str.intrans to fall (down), fail ASD/RPN
fellan, fyllan vb.wk to fell ASD/W7
fiellan vb to fell, kill RPN
Middle English: bifallen vb to befall AHD
blindfelden vb to blindfold, strike blind W7
blindfellen vb to blindfold W7
fallen vb to fall W7
fellen vb to fell W7
English: befall, befell, befallen vb.str to happen (to) AHD
blindfold vb.trans to cover eyes with bandage AHD/W7
fall, fell, fallen vb.str.intrans to descend freely from pull of gravity AHD/W7
fell vb.wk.trans to cut/beat/knock down AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: falla vb to fall ASD
Frisian: fallan vb to fall ASD
Dutch: vallen vb to fall ASD
Old Saxon: fallan vb to fall ASD
Old High German: fallan vb to fall W7
Middle High German: vallen vb to fall ASD
German: fallen vb to fall ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: falla vb to fall (down), be slain; flow LRC
Old Icelandic: fall n fall, ruin, death RPN
fella vb to fell, kill RPN
Icelandic: falla vb to fall ASD
Danish: falde vb to fall ASD
Swedish: falla vb to fall ASD
Lithuanian: pùlti, púola, púolė vb to attack, assault, fall upon LRC
Armenian: pʰlanim vb to fall in RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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