Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. rei-   'to cut, reap, rive, tear, scratch'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Tear, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rǣw, rāw n.fem row, line ASD
rāp n.masc rope ASD
re(o)pan, rīpan vb.str to reap ASD
rīpe adj ripe W7
rȳfe, rīfe adj rife ASD/W7
Middle English: ariven, arryven vb to arrive MEV/W7
rawe n row W7
repen vb to reap W7
rift n rift W7
ripe adj ripe W7
ripelen vb to ripple IEW
riven vb to rive W7
rivere n river W7
rope n rope W7
ryfe adj rife W7
English: arrive vb.intrans to reach destination AHD/W7
Orcrist prop.n sword (Goblin-Cleaver) in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
reap vb to cut with scythe/sickle AHD/W7
rife adj widespread, abundant, prevalent AHD/W7
rift n fissure, crevasse AHD/W7
rigatoni n short curved fluted pieces of macaroni AHD/W7
rimose adj having numerous clefts/cracks/fissures AHD/W7
riparian adj re: location on bank of natural watercourse AHD/W7
ripe adj mature, fully grown/developed AHD/W7
ripple vb to become ruffled/covered with small waves IEW/W7
rist vb to slash, wound; mark, scratch, engrave W2I
rivage n bank, shore, coast AHD
rive vb to rend, cleave, tear apart AHD/W7
Rivendell prop.n elven refuge in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
river n large natural stream of water AHD/W7
rope n stout cord of wire/fiber strands twisted/braided together AHD/W7
row n set of objects in line/series/sequence AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: rivier n river TLL
Old Saxon: rīpi adj ripe ASD
Middle Low German: risten vb to carve, engrave IEW
Old High German: reif n.masc rope ASD
rīfi adj ripe ASD
rīga n line W7
German: reif adj ripe LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rīfa vb to rive W7
rīfr adj rife W7
rīsta vb.str to cut, slash, carve, slice ICE/IEW/W2I
Old Icelandic: rista vb.wk to cut, slash, carve, slice ICE/IEW
Icelandic: reip n.neut rope ASD
rīf-ligr adj large, munificent ASD
Norwegian: rift n rift, scratch NED/W7
Danish: riste vb to cut, slash, carve ICE
Old Swedish: rīsta vb to carve/engrave (runes) IEW
East Germanic  
Gothic: raip n.neut rope ASD
Latin: rima n.fem slit, crack W7
rimosus adj slit, cracked W7
rīpa n.fem riverbank, seashore W7
riparia n.fem shore W7
riparius adj riparian, re: shore W7
Vulgar Latin: arripo, arripāre vb to come to shore W7
riparia n.fem shore W7
Old French: ar(r)iver vb to arrive MEV/W7
rivere n.fem bank, shore W7
Italian: rigare vb to furrow, flute W7
rigato vb.ptc fluted, furrowed W7
Greek: ereipein vb to tear down W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
NED=Einar Haugen: Norwegian-English Dictionary (1965)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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