Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: reidh-   'to ride, go (in vehicle)'

Semantic Field(s): to Ride, to Go


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rīadaim vb to ride W7
Welsh: gorwydd n horse, steed W7/WE
Old English: ēored, ēorod n.neut cavalry band/troop, lit. horse-ride(rs) ASD
hron-rād n.fem sea, lit. whale-road LRC
rād n.fem outfit, harness, implements ASD
rād n.fem road; raid; ride, journey; (name for) R-rune ASD/W7
rīdan, rād, ridon, riden vb.str.I to ride LRC
ridda n.masc rider, horseman ASD
*riddena-mearc n.fem land of knights, lit. riders' march LRC
Middle English: alredi adv already AHD
aray n rank, estate, array MEV
ar(r)ayen, araien, areyen vb to array CDC/W7
arrayment n raiment W7
currayen vb to curry W7
palfrey n palfrey W7
rayment n raiment W7
redy adj ready W7
riden vb to ride W7
rode n road W7
English: already adv previously, prior to implied/specified time AHD/W7
array n order, listing, grouping W7
array vb.trans to marshal, draw up, set/place in order AHD/W7
curry vb.trans to dress coat with currycomb AHD/W7
Éored prop.n cavalry unit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
palfrey n saddle horse other than war-horse AHD/W7
raddle vb.trans to interweave, twist together AHD/W7
raid n hostile/predatory incursion AHD/W7
raiment n clothing, garment(s) AHD/W7
ready adj prepared for some action/experience AHD/W7
Riddermark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ride, rode, ridden vb.str to sit/travel on back of animal AHD/W7
rider n one who rides LRC
road n place less enclosed than harbor where ships ride at anchor AHD/W7
Wolf-rider prop.n ally of Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rīda vb to ride ASD
Dutch: rijden vb to ride LRC
Old High German: rītan vb to ride W7
German: reiten vb to ride LRC
Reiter n.masc rider LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *raido n riding; carriage; (name for) R-rune LRC
Old Norse: reið n.fem ride; chariot LRC
reiði n.masc/neut harness, trappings; tackle, rigging LRC
ríða vb to ride (over) LRC
Icelandic: reið n.fem raid; ride, journey ASD
reiða n.fem outfit, implements ASD
reiði n.masc/neut tackle, harness ASD
rīða vb to ride, sway, swing ASD
Danish: ride vb to ride LRC
Swedish: rida vb to ride LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: garaiþs adj arrayed, arranged, commanded GED/W7
raidjan vb.wk to establish, correctly determine GED
Latin: veredus n.masc post-horse W7
Vulgar Latin: arredo, arredare vb to equip W7
conredo, conredare vb to prepare W7
Late Latin: paraveredus n.masc post-horse for secondary roads W7
Middle Latin: arredare vb.trans to array CDC
Portuguese: arreiar vb.trans to array CDC
Spanish: arrear vb.trans to array CDC
Old French: arayer, areyer, are(i)er vb to array CDC/W7
arei n rank, estate, array MEV
correer vb to curry, prepare W7
palefrei n.masc steed for women W7
Anglo-French: arayer, araier vb.trans to array CDC
Old Occitan: aredar vb.trans to array CDC
Italian: arredare vb.trans to array CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
WE=H. Meurig Evans and W.O. Thomas: Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary (1969)

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