Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. rē̆k-   'to reck, reckon, arrange, prepare'

Semantic Field(s): Account, Reckoning, Ready (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: racu n.str.fem talk, account, exposition; situation GED
rēc(c)an vb.wk to reck ASD/GED
recenian vb.wk to reckon, arrange, dispose GED
Middle English: recken vb to reck W7
rekenen vb to reckon W7
English: reck vb to care/worry (about) AHD/W7
reckless adj rash, wild, without care/caution IEW/W7
reckon vb to count, consider AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rek(e)nia vb.wk to reckon GED
Old Saxon: raka n.str.fem talk; situation GED
rōkian vb.wk to reck GED
Middle Low German: rekenen vb.wk to reckon GED
Old High German: rahha n.str.fem talk; situation GED
rehhenon, rehhanōn vb.wk to order, direct, prepare ASD/GED
ruohha n.fem care GED
ruohhen vb.wk to reck GED
ruohian vb to reck ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: regin powers, rulers, gods LRC
Reginn prop.n.masc brother of Fafnir LRC
Old Icelandic: rǫk fates, courses, expositions GED
røkja vb.wk to reck GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: garēhsns n.str.fem (fixed) time, determination; plan, design GED
*rahnjan vb.wk.I to reckon, calculate GED
Old Church Slavonic: račiti vb to want GED
rešti, rekǫ, rečeši vb to say, tell LRC
rokъ n definite time GED
Sanskrit: racanā- n arrangement GED
racáyati vb to produce GED
Tocharian B: reki, rekauna n word(s) GED
Tocharian A: rake n word GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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