Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ret(h)-   'to run, roll, rotate'

Semantic Field(s): to Run, to Roll


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rethim vb to run IEW
Middle Irish: tōir n.fem act of pursuing W7
Irish: rithim vb to run LRC
roth n.masc wheel IEW
tōraidhe n.masc robber, pursued man W7
Breton: redek vb to run LRC
rod n wheel LRC
Middle Welsh: rhawd n path, course, action, running IEW
Welsh: redheg vb to run LRC
rhod n.fem wheel IEW
Old English: rador, rodor n.masc sky, heaven, firmament IEW
Middle English: controllen vb to control W7
prouynen vb to prune W7
rolle n roll W7
round adj round W7
rowelle n rowel W7
English: barouche n four-wheeled carriage AHD/W7
control vb.trans to check/test/verify by evidence/experiments AHD/W7
gravure n process for producing printing plate on wood/copper AHD/W7
prune vb to cut off/cut back parts for better shape/more fruitful growth AHD/W7
rodeo n roundup AHD/W7
roll n scroll, written document that can be rolled up AHD/W7
roll vb to move/impel by turning over W7
rota n roster AHD/W7
rotary adj turning on axis like wheel AHD/W7
rotate adj having flat parts spreading/radiating like wheel spokes AHD/W7
rotate vb to revolve, turn about axis/center AHD/W7
rotiform adj rotate AHD/W7
rotogravure n process in which impression is produced by rotary press AHD/W7
rotor n part that rotates/revolves LRC
rotund adj rounded, marked by roundness AHD/W7
rotunda n round building AHD/W7
roulette n gambling game involving small ball/compartmented wheel AHD/W7
round adj having every part of surface/circumference equidistant from center AHD/W7
rowel n revolving disk with sharp marginal points AHD/W7
Tory prop.n member/supporter of Conservative Party in U.K., Canada, etc. LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: reth n wheel IEW
Frisian: rolje vb to roll OED
Old Dutch: rath n wheel IEW
Middle Dutch: rollen vb to roll OED
Dutch: rad n wheel LRC
rondom prep around TLL
Old Saxon: radur n sky, heaven, firmament ASD
Low German: rullen vb to roll OED
Old High German: rad n wheel W7
rado, rato adv fast, quickly IEW
Middle High German: rade-ber n wheelbarrow CDC
German: Barutsche n.fem barouche W7
Rad n.neut wheel LRC
Radberge, Radbürge n wheelbarrow CDC
rollen vb to roll OED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rǫðull n.masc sun, halo, corona IEW
Danish: rulle vb to roll OED
Swedish: rulla vb to roll OED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *raþs adj light, facile, nimble IEW
Latin: pango, pangere vb to fix, fasten W7
propāgo, propāginis n.fem small stem/shoot (to be replanted) W7
rota n.fem wheel W7
roto, rotāre, rotāvī, rotātum vb to roll, rotate W7
rotula n.fem.dim small wheel W7
rotundus adj rotund W7
Vulgar Latin: *birotium n barouche AHD
Late Latin: birotus adj two-wheeled W7
rotella n.fem.dim small wheel W7
Medieval Latin: rota n.fem wheel W7
rotarius adj rotating W7
New Latin: rotiformis adj wheel-shaped W7
Portuguese: rolar vb to roll OED
Spanish: rodear vb to surround W7
rodeo n.masc rodeo W7
rollar vb to roll OED
rueda n.fem wheel W7
Catalan: rotolar vb to roll, rotate OED
Old French: preugner, prougner vb to prune CDC
provigner vb to propagate CDC
roele n.fem.dim small wheel W7
roelete n.fem.dim small wheel W7
rolle n.fem wheel W7
roller, ro(u)ler vb to roll OED
roont adj round W7
Middle French: contrerolle n.masc audit, copy of an account W7
contreroller vb to audit, copy an account W7
proignier vb to layer, reproduce vines W7
provain n.masc layer W7
provigner vb to layer, reproduce vines W7
rolle n.masc roll, register W7
rouelle n.fem.dim small wheel W7
French: roue n.fem wheel LRC
roulette n.fem.dim roulette, small wheel W7
Provençal: ro(t)lar vb to roll, rotate OED
Italian: baròccio, biròccio n.masc two-wheeled cart W7
rotolare vb to roll, rotate OED
rotonda adj round, plump W7
ruota n.fem wheel LRC
Rumanian: roată n wheel LRC
Lithuanian: rãtas n.masc wheel, circle IEW
Latvian: rats n wheel IEW
Avestan: raθa n wagon, chariot IEW
Sanskrit: rátha- n.masc wagon, chariot IEW/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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