Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sap-, sab-   'to taste, savvy, perceive'

Semantic Field(s): to Taste (subj), to Taste (obj), to Sense, Perceive; Sense


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mōd-sefa n.wk.masc mind, spirit LRC
sæp n.neut sap ASD
sefa n.wk.masc mind, understanding ASD
Middle English: sage adj sage W7
sap n sap W7
sapient adj sapient W7
sapor n sapor W7
savor n savor W7
English: insipid adj tasteless, lacking taste/savor AHD/W7
sabayon n zabaglione AHD
sage adj wise through reflection/experience AHD/W7
sap n fluid part of plant AHD/W7
sapid adj tasty, possessing flavor, affecting organs of taste AHD/W7
sapient adj sage, discerning, knowledgeable AHD/W7
sapor n savor, flavor, property affecting sense of taste AHD/W7
savant n man of learning AHD/W7
savor n taste, smell AHD/W7
savvy vb to understand, comprehend AHD/W7
zabaglione n sauce/dessert of wine/sugar/egg yolk AHD
zaftig adj plump, shapely, full-bosomed AHD
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: sap n sap CDC
Old Saxon: mōd-seƀo n mind, spirit ASD
Middle Low German: sap n sap CDC
Low German: sapp n sap CDC
Old High German: saf, saph n.masc sap, juice ASD/CDC
Middle High German: saf n sap CDC
saft n juice AHD
saftec adj juicy AHD
German: Saft n.masc sap, juice, syrup CDC
Yiddish: zaftik adj juicy, zaftig AHD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: móð-sefi n mind, spirit ASD
safi n.masc sap ASD
Danish: saft n sap, juice CDC
Swedish: saft n sap, juice CDC
Oscan: sipus adj sapient, knowing W7
Latin: sapa n.fem boiled must/new wine CDC
sapidus adj sapid W7
sapiens, sapientis adj/vb.ptc tasting; knowing W7
sapio, sapere vb to taste; be wise W7
sapor n.masc sapor W7
Vulgar Latin: sapius adj wise W7
Late Latin: insipidus adj tasteless W7
Portuguese: saber vb to know, savvy TLL
sabor n savor TLL
seiva n sap, juice CDC
Spanish: saber vb to know, savvy W7
sab(i)a n sap, juice CDC
sabor n savor TLL
Old French: sage adj sage W7
savor n.fem savor W7
Middle French: sapient adj sapient W7
French: insipide adj insipid W7
saber vb to yield sap CDC
savant adj sapient W7
saveur n savor TLL
savoir n.masc knowledge W7
savoir vb to know, savvy W7
séve, sèpe, sive n sap, juice CDC
Provençal: saba n sap, juice CDC
Italian: sapere vb to know, savvy TLL
sapore n savor TLL
zabaione n zabaglione AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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