Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. sē(i)-, səi- : sī-, and sei- : si-   'to bind, strap, tie'

Semantic Field(s): to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: seono, se(o)nu, si(o)nu, synu n.fem nerve, sinew ASD/W7
Middle English: secular adj secular W7
sinewe n sinew W7
English: equisetum n lower tracheophyte (perennial plant) AHD/W7
poudesoy, paduasoy n rich corded silk fabric AHD/W7
secular adj worldly, temporal AHD/W7
seta n slender rigid/springy/bristly part of plant/animal AHD/W7
setiferous adj bristly, having bristles/setae AHD
setigerous adj setiferous AHD
sinew n tendon AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sin, sene, sini(e) n sinew ASD
Dutch: zenuw n nerve, sinew TLL
Old High German: senawa n sinew W7
German: Sehne n.fem sinew LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: síða vb to bewitch, practice sorcery LRC
Icelandic: sin n sinew ASD
Latin: equisaetum n.neut horsetail (plant) W7
saeculāris adj re: an age, lifetime, generation W7
saeculum n.neut age, breed, generation W7
s(a)eta n.fem seta, bristle W7
saetiger adj setigerous AHD/CLD
Late Latin: saecularis adj laic, secular W7
New Latin: seta n.fem seta W7
Old French: seculer adj laic, secular W7
French: pou-de-soie n.masc poudesoy R1/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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