Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sē̆k-   'to cut, section, dissect'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: saga, sagu n.masc/fem saw ASD
seax n.neut knife, cutting tool ASD
Seaxe, Seaxan prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
secg n.masc/neut sedge ASD
segl, s(w)egel n sail; veil, curtain IEW/ASD
segl(i)an, seglode, seglod vb.wk.II to sail ASD
sicol n.masc sickle ASD
sīþe n.masc scythe W7
Middle English: sail n sail W7
sawe n saw W7
sax n zax, knife AHD
Saxon n Saxon W7
segge n sedge W7
sikel n sickle W7
sithe n scythe W7
English: dissect vb to separate into pieces AHD/W7
insect n small segmented invertebrate animal AHD/W7
intersect vb to cross, pierce/divide AHD/W7
Irensaga prop.n mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
resect vb.trans to perform resection on AHD/W7
sail n fabric deflecting wind to propel boat/ship W7
sail vb to travel on water using sail W7
saw n toothed blade for cutting hard materials AHD/W7
saw vb to cut with saw W7
sawn vb.past.ptc sawed LRC
saxatile adj saxicolous AHD/W7
saxicolous adj inhabiting/growing among rocks AHD/W7
Saxon prop.n member of tribe from Saxony LRC
scythe n long curved blade (on long handle) used for mowing AHD/W7
secant n straight line intersecting curve at multiple points AHD/W7
-sect adj.sfx cut, divided AHD/W7
-sect vb.sfx to cut, divide AHD/W7
sectile adj able to be severed by knife with smooth cut AHD/W7
section n action/instance of cutting/separating AHD/W7
section vb to cut/separate into sections W7
sector n geometrical figure: two radii + included arc of circle AHD/W7
sedge n tufted marsh plant AHD/W7
seecatch n adult male Alaskan fur seal AHD
segment n piece, portion, fragment AHD/W7
Sickle prop.n Ursa Major in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sickle n curved metal blade (on short handle) AHD/W7
transect vb to cut transversely AHD/W7
zax n roof slate cutting tool AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: zeil n sail TLL
Old High German: Sahsun prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
sega, saga n.fem saw W7/ASD
segal n sail IEW
segelen vb to sail ASD
sichila, sihhila n.fem sickle W7/ASD
Middle High German: segge n sedge W7
German: Säge n.fem saw LRC
sagen vb to saw LRC
Segel n.neut sail LRC
segeln vb to sail LRC
Segge n.fem sedge LRC
Sichel n.fem sickle ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: segl n sail IEW
Icelandic: Saxar prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
segl n.neut sail ASD
sigd n sickle ASD
sigðr n.masc scythe ASD
sigla vb to sail ASD
sög n.fem saw ASD
Danish: sejl n sail TLL
Swedish: segel n sail TLL
Latin: disseco, dissecāre vb to cut apart W7
dissectus vb.ptc cut apart W7
inseco, insecare vb to cut into W7
insectus vb.ptc cut into W7
interseco, intersecare vb to cut at intervals W7
intersectus vb.ptc cut at intervals W7
reseco, resecare vb to cut off W7
resectus vb.ptc cut off W7
saxatillis adj saxatile W7
saxum n.neut rock W7
secans adj/vb.ptc cutting W7
seco, secare, secui, sectum vb to cut, wound, injure W7
sectilis adj that can be separated W7
sectio, sectionis n.fem section, act/result of cutting W7
sector n.masc cutter W7
secula n.fem sickle W7
segmentum n.neut segment W7
signum, signi n.neut sign LRC
New Latin: secans, secantis adj/vb.ptc secant W7
Russian: sekach n seecatch AHD
sech' vb to cut AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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