Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: selk-   'to pull, drag; sulcus, furrow'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull, Furrow (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hulc n.masc hulk, light ship W7
seolh n.masc seal ASD
sul(u)h, sul(l) n.fem plow; arable land ASD/W7
Middle English: hulke n hulk W7
sele n seal W7
English: felucca n narrow lateen-rigged sailing ship AHD/W7
hulk n heavy clumsy ship AHD/W7
seal n carnivorous marine mammal AHD/W7
sulcate adj grooved, scored with longitudinal furrows AHD/W7
sulcus n groove, furrow AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: hulke n hulk, light ship ASD
Old High German: holcho n hulk, light ship ASD
selah, selan n seal ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Icelandic: selr n seal ASD
Danish: sæl n seal TLL
Swedish: säl n seal TLL
Latin: sulcatus vb.ptc furrowed W7
sulco, sulcāre vb to furrow W7
sulcus n.masc furrow W7
Medieval Latin: holcas n.fem heavy ship W7
Italian: feluca n.fem felucca W7
Homeric Greek: ἕλκω vb to draw, drag, tug LRC
Greek: holkos n.masc furrow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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