Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: septm̥   'seven'

Semantic Field(s): Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: secht nbr.card seven (7) EIE
sechtmad nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Irish: seacht nbr.card seven (7) LRC
Scots Gaelic: seachd nbr.card seven (7) LRC
Manx: shiaght nbr.card seven (7) LRC
Middle Welsh: seith nbr.card seven (7) EIE
Welsh: seithfed nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Old English: hundseofontig nbr.card hundred seventy (170) W7
seofon, syfon nbr.card seven (7) W7/ASD
seofontig nbr.card seventy (70) W7
siofþa, siofoða nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Middle English: Septembre prop.n September W7
seven nbr.card seven W7
seventy nbr.card seventy W7
English: hebdomad n group of seven AHD/W7
hept(a)- pfx seven AHD
heptad n group of seven AHD/W7
Heptateuch prop.n first 7 books of Hebrew Bible, lit. seven containers LRC
September prop.n 9th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
septennial adj (happening) every 7 years AHD/W7
septet n music for 7 voices/instruments AHD/W7
septuple adj having 7 units/members AHD
seven nbr.card 7 AHD/W7
seventh nbr.ord 7th LRC
seventy nbr.card 70 AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: saven, sigun nbr.card seven (7)
Old Saxon: siƀun nbr.card seven (7)
Old High German: sibun nbr.card seven W7
sibunto nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
German: September prop.n September LRC
Septett n.neut septet W7
sieben nbr.card seven (7) LRC
siebter nbr.ord seventh (7th) LRC
siebzig nbr.card seventy (70) LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sjō nbr.card seven (7) EIE
sjōndi nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Icelandic: sjau nbr.card seven (7)
Swedish: sju nbr.card seven (7) TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: sibun nbr.card seven LRC
Crimean Gothic: *sevene, seuene nbr.card seven (7) CGo
Latin: septem nbr.card seven W7
September prop.n.masc September, seventh month (in Roman calendar) W7
septimus nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Portuguese: sete nbr.card seven (7) TLL
Spanish: siete nbr.card seven (7) TLL
Old French: Septembre n.masc September W7
French: sept nbr.card seven (7) TLL
Italian: sette nbr.card seven (7) TLL
Old Prussian: sepmas nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Lithuanian: septiñtas, septintà nbr.ord seventh (7th) LRC
septynì nbr.card seven (7) EIE
Latvian: septîtais nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: sedmĭ nbr.card seven (7) EIE
sedmyi, sedmoje, sedmaja nbr.ord seventh (7th) LRC
Russian: semĭ nbr.card seven (7) EIE
Albanian: sh(ë)tatë nbr.card seven (7) EIE
shtatë nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Homeric Greek: ἑβδόματος, ἕβδομος nbr.ord seventh (7th) LRC
ἑπτά nbr.card seven (7) LRC
ἕπταχα adj in seven parts LRC
Greek: hebdomas n.fem (group of) seven W7
heptad- stem group of seven W7
heptas n.fem group of seven W7
Hittite: sapta- pfx.ord seventh (7th) EIE
sipta- nbr.card seven (7) EIE
Armenian: ewt'n nbr.card seven (7) EIE
Middle Persian: haftom nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Avestan: hapta nbr.card seven (7) EIE
haptaθa- nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Sanskrit: saptá nbr.card seven (7) EIE
saptamá-, saptátha- nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Tocharian B: ṣukt nbr.card seven (7) EIE
ṣuktante nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
Tocharian A: ṣäptänt nbr.ord seventh (7th) EIE
ṣpät nbr.card seven (7) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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