Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. ser-   'to insert, line up, put/bind together'

Semantic Field(s): to Join, Unite, to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: consort n consort W7
sermon n sermon W7
sort n sort W7
English: assert vb.trans to state/declare positively AHD/W7
assort vb to classify, distribute into groups of like kind AHD/W7
consort n associate AHD/W7
consort n conjunction, association AHD/W7
desert vb to leave, withdraw from AHD/W7
dissertate vb.intrans to dissert, discourse AHD/W7
ensorcel(l) vb to bewitch/enchant, wrap/bind with thrown rope AHD
exert vb.trans to put forth (e.g. strength) AHD/W7
exsert vb.trans to put/thrust out AHD/W7
insert vb to put/thrust in AHD/W7
sear n catch that holds weapon's hammer/release at cock AHD/W7
series n number of things/events (of same class) one after another AHD/W7
sermon n public religious discourse delivered in worship service AHD/W7
serried adj pressed, crowded, compacted in regular lines AHD/CDC
sertularian n delicate branching hydriods AHD/W7
sorcerer n wizard, one who practices sorcery AHD/W7
sorcery n necromancy, use of evil spirit's power W7
sort n kind, class, group defined by characteristic(s) in common AHD/W7
Latin: adserō, adserere vb to assert CDC
asserō, asserere, asseruī, assertum vb to assert, affirm W7
consors adj sharing a common lot W7
desertus vb.ptc deserted W7
dissertatus vb.ptc argued W7
disserto, dissertare vb to argue, discuss W7
dissertus vb.ptc examined W7
exsero, exserere vb to thrust out W7
exsertus vb.ptc thrust out W7
insero, inserere vb to join in W7
insertus vb.ptc joined, attached, inserted W7
sera n.fem bar fastening door W7
series n.fem chain, series W7
sermo n.masc speech, conversation W7
serō, serere vb to join together W7
serta n.fem wreath, garland W7
sertula n.fem small crown W7
sertus vb.ptc joined W7
sors, sortis n.fem lot, share, chance W7
sortior, sortīrī vb.dep to allot, select, distribute, cast lots CDC
Late Latin: deserto, desertāre vb to desert, abandon W7
sero, serāre vb to bolt, latch W7
Middle Latin: *assortare vb to allot, select, distribute, cast lots CDC
Medieval Latin: sermo, sermonis n.masc speech in church W7
sors, sortis n.fem chance, fortune W7
New Latin: Sertularia n.fem (genus name) W7
Spanish: asortir vb to assort CDC
Old French: assorter vb to assort CDC
sermon n.masc speech in church W7
Middle French: assortir vb to assort W7
consort adj re: associate, one who shares W7
serre n.fem claws of eagles/falcons W7
serrer vb to press, grasp W7
sorte n.fem sort W7
French: assortier vb to assort CDC
déserter vb to desert, abandon W7
Old Italian: assortare vb to assort CDC
Italian: assortire vb to assort CDC
Old Lithuanian: sėris n (cobbler's) thread RPN
Homeric Greek: εἴρω vb to string together in rows RPN
ἕρμα n band, noose, earring; snake coils RPN
ὅρμος n.masc chain, necklace LRC
Sanskrit: sará-ḥ n cord, string RPN
sarat n thread RPN
sirā́ n vein, nerve, tendon RPN
Prakrit: sarā n string, garland, necklace RPN
sirā n vein, sinew RPN
Oriya: sarā n string (of garlands, etc.) RPN
sari n string (of garlands, etc.) RPN
sira n vein, artery RPN
sirāḷa adj having conspicuous veins RPN
Tocharian A: sar- n vein RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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