Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. seu-, seə- : sū-   'sop, soup, juice, liquid'

Semantic Field(s): to Drink, to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: súgid vb to suck RPN
Old English: sēaw n.neut juice, liquid RPN
sīcan, sȳcan vb.wk to suckle ASD
socian vb.wk to soak ASD
sol n.neut mud, mire, slime IEW
Sol-mōnaþ prop.n.masc February, lit. mire-month ASD
sopp(e) n sop ASD/W7
sūcan, sūgan vb.str to suck ASD/RPN
sūpan, suppan vb.str to sup, sip, taste, swallow ASD/RPN
Middle English: sippen vb to sip W7
soken vb to soak W7
soppe n sop W7
souken vb to suck W7
soupen vb to sip, sup W7
suppen vb to sup W7
English: hyetal adj re: rain, rainy region AHD
isohyet n line on map/chart separating different rainfall areas AHD/W7
prosciutto n aged dry-cured spiced ham AHD
sip vb to take small drink/draft AHD/W7
soak vb to steep in liquid AHD/W7
soggy adj wet, soaked, sodden, waterlogged W7
So(l)math prop.n Shire calendar's February in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sop n food dipped/steeped in liquid AHD/W7
sopaipilla n crisp puffy deep-fried pastry AHD
soup n liquid food AHD/W7
soup vb.trans to increase power/efficiency of AHD/W7
succulent adj juicy, full of juice AHD/W7
suck vb to draw (liquid) into mouth AHD/W7
suckle vb to nurse, give suck W7
suction n sucking AHD/W7
suctorial adj adapted for sucking AHD/W7
sup vb to take/drink in gulps/swallows AHD/W7
sup vb.intrans to eat supper AHD/W7
supper n dinner, evening meal LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: zuigen vb to suck LRC
zuipen vb to sup, drink, quaff ASD
Middle Low German: sane n cream LRC
Low German: sippen vb to sip W7
Old High German: sol n mire ASD
sou n.neut juice; drug, potion ASD
sūfan vb to sup, sip, drink, gulp down RPN
sūgan vb to suck RPN
German: Sahne n.fem cream LRC
saufen vb to sup, drink ASD
säugen vb to suckle TLL
saugen vb to suck, absorb LRC
süffeln vb to sip LRC
Suppe n.fem soup LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: soppa n sop, soup W7
Old Icelandic: súga vb to suck RPN
súpa vb to sup, sip, drink RPN
Icelandic: saggi n.masc moistness ASD
s(j)ūga vb to suck ASD
soppa n sop ASD
söggr adj dank, soggy ASD
Danish: suge vb to suck LRC
Swedish: suga vb to suck LRC
Latin: sagīmen n fat, lard LRC
sagīna n.fem fat, stuffing, fattening CLD
suculentus vb.ptc succulent W7
sūcus n.masc sap, juice RPN
sūgō, sūgere vb to suck RPN
Late Latin: suctio, suctionis n.fem suction W7
New Latin: suctorius adj suctorial W7
Old French: saim n fat LRC
sain n fat LRC
soupe n.fem sop, soup W7
souper n.masc supper W7
Italian: prosciutto n prosciutto AHD
Old Church Slavonic: sъsǫ, sъsati vb to suck RPN
Albanian: shí n.masc rain IEW
Homeric Greek: ὑετός n rain, shower LRC
ὕω vb to rain LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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