Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: skē̆i-   'to cut, skive, exscind, separate'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: scian n.fem edge, knife, dagger IED/W7
Scots Gaelic: sgian n.fem knife GE/W7
Old English: scēadan, scādan vb.str to shed, divide, separate ASD/W7
scēaþ, scǣþ n.fem sheath ASD/W7
scinu n.fem shin W7
scip n.neut ship LRC
scītan, scāt, sciton, sciten vb.str to shit AHD/ASD
Middle English: chine n chine W7
conscience n conscience W7
escochon n escutcheon W7
esquire n esquire W7
nice adj foolish, wanton W7
science n science W7
scifra n chip, shiver IEW
scilicet adv scilicet W7
scisme n schism W7
sheden vb to shed W7
shethe n sheath W7
sheve n sheave W7
shine n shin W7
ship n ship W7
shiten vb to shit W9
shiver n shiver W7
skipper n skipper W7
squier n squire W7
English: adscititious adj derived/acquired extrinsically AHD/W7
blatherskite n blustering talkative fellow AHD/W7
chine n spine, backbone AHD/W7
conscience n sense/consciousness of moral goodness/blameworthiness AHD/W7
conscious adj sharing another's knowledge/awareness of inward state/outward fact AHD/W7
ecu n (old) French gold coin with shield AHD
equip vb.trans to prepare, furnish for action/service AHD/W7
escudo n (former) Hispanic gold/silver coin AHD/W7
escutcheon n coat of arms AHD/W7
esquire n member of English gentry ranking below knight AHD/W7
exscind vb.trans to excise, cut off/out AHD/W7
gobshite n unpleasant person, nonsensical chatterer AHD
nescience n ignorance, lack of knowledge/awareness AHD/W7
nice adj wanton, dissolute AHD/W7
omniscient adj having infinite insight/awareness/understanding AHD/W7
prescience n foresight, knowledge of events/actions before occurrence AHD
prescient adj foreknowing, re: prescience AHD
prescind vb to detach for thought AHD/W7
rescind vb.trans to remove, take away AHD/W7
schism n division, separation AHD/W7
schist n brittle metamorphic crystalline rock AHD/W7
science n possession of knowledge vs. ignorance/misunderstanding AHD/W7
scilicet adv namely, videlicet, to wit AHD/W7
sciolism n superficial show of learning AHD/W7
scission n schism, split/division in group/union AHD/W7
scudo n Italian gold coin AHD/W7
scutum n scute, bony/horny/chitinous plate AHD/W7
sheath n case for (e.g. knife) blade AHD/W7
sheave n grooved wheel/pulley of pulley block AHD/W7
shed, shed vb.str to excise, segregate, set apart AHD/W7
shin n front part of vertebrate leg below knee AHD/W7
ship n large seagoing boat AHD/W7
shipperke n small black tailless dog breed AHD
shit n dung, feces, ordure, excrement LRC
shit vb to defecate AHD/W9
shiv n knife W7
shive n cut, slice IEW
shiver n small piece of broken thing AHD/W7
shyster n pettifogger, professionally unscrupulous person AHD/W7
skate n nag, thin decrepit/awkward-looking horse AHD/W7
skean n dirk, dagger AHD/W7
ski n narrow strip of wood/metal used to glide over snow AHD/W7
skiff n small light sailing ship AHD/W7
skipper n master of ship AHD/W7
skite n offensive person AHD/W7
skive vb.trans to pare, cut off in thin layers/pieces AHD/W7
squire n knight's shield/armor-bearer AHD/W7
Scots English: skate n contemptible person W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: skēda, skētha vb to divide, decide ASD
skip n ship ASD
Middle Dutch: schip n ship W7
schipper n skipper W7
shiten vb to shit W9
Dutch: echtscheiding n divorce TLL
schip n ship TLL
Old Saxon: skēdan, skēthan vb to divide ASD
skēðia n sheath ASD
skip n ship ASD
Old Low German: scēthan, sceithan vb to divide ASD
Middle Low German: shiten vb to shit W9
Old High German: sceida n sheath W7
scina n shin(bone); needle W7
scīzan, skīzzan vb to shit AHD/W9
skeidan, sceidan vb to separate ASD/W7
skif, scif n ship ASD/W7
skīt n stick of wood W7
German: scheiden vb to divide, separate LRC
Scheidung n.fem divorce, separation TLL
Schiff n.neut ship LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skip n.neut ship, boat LRC
skipa, skipað vb to array, draw up; assign, put in order LRC
skipta, skiptat vb to share, divide, exchange; decide LRC
skíð n.neut wooden stave/block/tablet LRC
skīfa vb to slice W7
skīta vb to shit W9
skīþ n ski, stick of wood W7
Icelandic: skeiðir sheath ASD
skip n ship ASD
Norwegian: ski n ski W7
Danish: skib n ship TLL
Swedish: skepp n ship TLL
skida n sheath TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: skaidan vb to divide ASD
skip n.str.masc ship LRC
Latin: adscitus vb.ptc received W7
adsisco, adsciscere vb to receive W7
consciens, conscientis adj/vb.ptc conscious, knowing W7
conscientia n.fem joint knowledge, consciousness W7
conscio, conscire vb to be conscious (of guilt) W7
conscius adj conscious, knowing W7
exscindo, exscindere vb to tear out, destroy W7
inscientia, inscientiae n.fem ignorance LRC
liceo, licēre vb to be permitted W7
nesciens, nescientis vb.ptc ignorant W7
nescio, nescīre vb to not know W7
nescius adj ignorant W7
praescindo, praescindere vb to cut off in front W7
rescindo, rescindere vb to annul W7
sciens, scientis adj/vb.ptc having knowledge W7
scientia n.fem science W7
scilicet adv surely, to wit W7
scindo, scindere vb to cut, split, tear W7
scio, scīre vb to know W7
scisco, sciscere vb to accept W7
scissus vb.ptc split W7
scius adj knowing W7
scutum, scuti n.neut shield LRC
Late Latin: nescientia n.fem ignorance W7
schisma n.neut schism, division W7
sciolus n.masc smatterer W7
scissio, scissionis n.fem act of splitting W7
scutarius n.masc esquire, shield bearer W7
Medieval Latin: omniscientia n.fem omniscience W7
New Latin: omnisciens, omniscientis adj/vb.ptc all-knowing W7
scutum n.neut shield W7
Portuguese: escudo n.masc shield W7
Spanish: escudo n.masc shield W7
Old French: conscience n.fem conscience W7
écu n ecu LRC
esquier n.masc squire, shield-bearer; knight W7
nice adj ignorant W7
Middle French: cisme n.masc schism W7
escuchon n.masc shield W7
esquier n.masc squire W7
esquif n.masc skiff W7
science n.fem science W7
French: schiste n.masc schist W7
scission n.fem act of splitting W7
Italian: scudo n.masc shield W7
Old Church Slavonic: čistъ adj pure, clean LRC
Homeric Greek: σχίζω vb to split, cleave LRC
Greek: schisma n.neut cleft, division W7
schistos adj that may be split W7
Romani: chiv n shiv, blade W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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